Allergisches Asthma: Neues zum Wirkmechanismus von Dexamethason

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Dexamethason ist ein entzündungshemmender, immunsuppressiver und antiallergischer Wirkstoff aus der Gruppe der Glucocorticoide. Seine Effekte beruhen auf der Bindung an intrazelluläre Glucocorticoid-Rezeptoren.

Der Wirkmechanismus von Dexamethason bei der Behandlung von allergischem Asthma ist nicht eindeutig geklärt. In einer aktuell in „International Immunopharmacology“ veröffentlichten Studie wurde der Effekt von Dexamethason auf Atemwegsentzündungen in einem Ovalbumin-induzierten Mausmodell im Hinblick auf die Hemmung des NLRP3-Inflammasoms analysiert. Die Forscher fanden heraus, dass Dexamethason signifikant die Infiltration durch Ovalbumin-induzierte inflammatorische Zellen hemmt, ebenso die Schleimsekretion und die Proliferation der schleimbildenden Becherzellen.Die Anzahl der inflammatorischen Zellen sowie die Level von Interleukin-1β, Interleukin-18, Interleukin-5 und Interleukin-17 in der Bronchiallavage-Flüssigkeit der Mäuse waren nach Verabreichung von Dexamethason in der Experimentalgruppe signifikant niedriger als in der Modellgruppe. Dexamethason reduzierte außerdem die Aktivität des NLRP3-Inflammasoms und reduzierte den Proteingehalt von Pro-Caspase-1, Caspase-1, Capase-1/Pro-Caspase-1, Interleukin-1β, Interleukin-6 und Interleukin-17 im Lungengewebe.

Das Fazit der Autorengruppe: Dexamethason schwächt die allergische Atemwegsinflammation durch Inhibition der Aktivität des NLRP3-Inflammasoms sowie der Level von Interleukin-1β und Interleukin-18. (am)

Der Beitrag Allergisches Asthma: Neues zum Wirkmechanismus von Dexamethason erschien zuerst auf Biermann Medizin.

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