Early indicators of vaccine efficacy

Credit: CC0 Public Domain

Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität (LMU) researchers have shown that a specific class of immune cells in the blood induced by vaccination is an earlier indicator of vaccine efficacy than conventional tests for neutralizing antibodies.

The current coronavirus pandemic, together with episodic outbreaks of infections caused by other , represent a growing threat to societies around the world, especially when effective vaccines are either lacking altogether or are in short supply. This underlines the importance of novel approaches to the prevention and treatment of viral infections. However, this task will require a better understanding of the complexities of the cellular immune to viral challenges and vaccines.

An interdisciplinary team of scientists working on the virus that prevents yellow fever now reports an important advance towards this goal. Led by Dirk Baumjohann (who until recently was based in LMU’s Biomedical Center and is now a professor at Bonn University) and Simon Rothenfusser (Department of Clinical Pharmacology, LMU Medical Center and Helmholtz Zentrum München), the group has shown that the quality of the immune response induced by vaccination can be rapidly ascertained by measuring the frequency of a specific subclass of white blood cells in the circulation. The new findings appear in the journal Clinical & Translational Immunology.

The current vaccine against yellow fever is one of the most effective vaccines on the market. It belongs to the type known as ‘live vaccines,’ as it contains whole virus particles of a vaccine strain of the yellow fever virus with greatly reduced virulence. Following vaccination, the vaccine virus replicates in the body, thus inducing the immune system to produce antibodies against it. These antibodies bind specifically to the virus, thereby prevent its entry into cells and mark it for destruction by other components of the body’s adaptive immune system. “In our study, we monitored the development of the immune response in the blood of healthy subjects,” says Baumjohann. “The individuals involved belong to a cohort of 250 people who had been vaccinated against yellow fever. This cohort was recruited by the Departments of Clinical Pharmacology and Tropical Medicine at the LMU Medical Center, in collaboration with the Helmholtz Zentrum München.”

The remarkable efficacy of the yellow fever vaccine is attributable to the fact that it triggers the production of very high levels of specific antibodies, which are detectable for decades after immunization. How the vaccine induces such an extraordinarily long-lived immune response is not fully understood. The induction of antibody formation and secretion is a complex process, in which cells called T follicular helper (Tfh) cells play an essential role. This particular subgroup of white blood cells is found primarily in secondary lymphoid organs, including the lymph nodes and the spleen. “However, these organs are difficult to analyze in humans. But what are referred to as ‘Tfh-like cells’ are found in the circulation, and their frequencies correlate quite well with the relative concentrations of classical Tfh cells in secondary lymphoid organs,” explains Johanna Huber, a Ph.D. student in Baumjohann’s group and lead author of the new paper. “Therefore, analysis of circulating Tfh-like cells is relevant and can be performed directly in blood samples.” Despite this ease of access, the role of these circulating T cells in the immune response to the yellow-fever vaccine had not previously been examined in detail.

Baumjohann and his colleagues have now shown that measurements of the properties and dynamics of Tfh-like cells allow one to predict the efficacy of the immune response induced by the yellow fever vaccine—even before detectable amounts of neutralizing antibodies that inhibit viral replication appear in the circulation. The formation of highly potent neutralizing antibodies in response to natural infection or vaccination can take up to several weeks. “In contrast, vaccine-induced T follicular helper cells can be quantified in the blood by about day 7 after immunization. In addition, we found that the frequency of a subpopulation of Tfh in the blood at two weeks after vaccination correlates with the quality of the antibody response that we detect a fortnight later,” Baumjohann says.

The authors of the new study believe that these results are of potential significance for the development of effective vaccines against other viral diseases such as Covid19. “How SARS-Cov-2 triggers an immune response is essentially unknown at the moment. The vaccine against yellow fever is a paradigmatic example for the induction of live-long immunity against a specific virus. Our findings on the immune cell phenotypes in the vaccine cohort will therefore provide a useful source of data for on the immunogenicity of SARS-Cov-2 and other emerging classes of viral pathogens and vaccines for which it is not yet known if they induce a long-lasting protective immune response,” adds Simon Rothenfusser.

Recently recovered COVID-19 patients produce varying virus-specific antibodies

More information:
Johanna E Huber et al, Dynamic changes in circulating T follicular helper cell composition predict neutralising antibody responses after yellow fever vaccination, Clinical & Translational Immunology (2020). DOI: 10.1002/cti2.1129

Viral infection: Early indicators of vaccine efficacy (2020, May 15)
retrieved 15 May 2020
from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2020-05-viral-infection-early-indicators-vaccine.html

This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no
part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.


Related posts:

Study quantifies China's chronic health burden for the first time
Those with IDD more likely to die from COVID-19, study shows
Voluntary collective isolation is best response to COVID-19 for indigenous populations
Virus 'eminently capable' of spreading through speech: study
Doctors should be cautious when using current warning system for patient's worsening health
Möglicher Übertragungsweg? Erstmals SARS-CoV-2 in Muttermilch nachgewiesen
Social distancing is particularly hard on those with eating disorders, experts say
5 ways to help stop the 'infodemic,' the increasing misinformation about coronavirus
Corona-relevante Vorerkrankungen hätten verhindert werden können
Chicago Latinos see higher rates of COVID-19 infections
Neue Emmy Noether-Nachwuchsgruppe erforscht schwere Pilzinfektionen
Deutsche Krebshilfe und die Arbeitsgemeinschaft Dermatologische Prävention raten zu neuer Normalität...
Heart surgery stalled as COVID-19 spread
Study reveals mental health of medical personnel working with COVID-19 patients
New study could pave way to cure of global parasite
Genetische Ursachen für die nicht-alkoholische Fettleber
Coronavirus-Infektionen können zu Delir und PTSD führen
Roboter hilft Pflegenden - Biermann Medizin
Scientists raise concern over hydroxychloroquine study
COVID-19 patients who undergo surgery are at increased risk of postoperative death
COVID-19: DEGUM hält Thoraxsonographie für unverzichtbares Überwachungsinstrument
Study explores how older people manage distress
Glucose levels linked to maternal mortality even in non-diabetic women
Local climate unlikely to drive the early COVID-19 pandemic
COVID-19 trial finder provides simplified search process for COVID-related clinical trials
Biomarkers may help us understand recovery time after concussion
Fear­ful Great Danes provide new in­sights to ge­netic causes of fear
Continuously tracking fear response could improve mental health treatment
Treatment guidance for lung cancer patients during the COVID-19 pandemic
Public health campaigns can do better on cannabis harm reduction
Turkey confirms 32 deaths, 1,141 new COVID-19 cases
Mayo Clinic Minute: Health benefits of gardening
Virus cases drop to zero in China but surge in Latin America
Are we wired for romance? fMRI imaging and genetic analysis say yes
Museums, hotels, bars to reopen in Madrid, Barcelona
New research finds 'Dr. Google' is almost always wrong
Research probes why COVID-19 seems to spare young children
Cavity-causing bacteria assemble an army of protective microbes on human teeth
New York's daily virus death toll falls below 100: governor
Researchers launche clinical trial to help reduce severity of COVID-19 illness in men
Madagascar reports first coronavirus death
The cholera outbreak in a Victorian asylum that anticipated the coronavirus crisis in care homes
Harnblasenkarzinom: Neuer Mechanismus der Krebsentstehung entdeckt
Coronavirus deaths top 325,000 worldwide
Epilepsy-related deaths common in young adults and are not reducing, new research shows
New study confirms important clues to fight ovarian cancer
Neue App für Pollen-Allergiker - Biermann Medizin
Liverpool-Atletico match linked to '41 additional' virus deaths: report
SARS-CoV-2-PCR-Tests erreichen Rekordniveau – Zahl der Antikörpertests steigt
Certain environmental chemicals linked with poor kidney health
UK's COVID-19 study aims to vaccinate more than 10,000
Diabetes mellitus: Ein Risikofaktor für frühe Darmkrebserkrankungen
MCC: Städtische Umweltzonen senken Ausgaben für Herztabletten und Asthmasprays
Antibody designed to recognize pathogens of Alzheimer's disease
Germans opt for staycations as virus fears linger
Knochenkrebs : Die Schwäche des Tumors
Russia's virus spread stabilising: top health official
Overcoming challenges of individuals with autism during the COVID-19 pandemic
Mental ill health 'substantial health concern' among police, finds international study
Anti-malarial drug shows promise for brain cancer treatment
Presymptomatic virus patients can contaminate environments: study
Neue Angiographie-Einheit erweitert Behandlungsmöglichkeiten deutlich
Lidar used to track mosquito activity in Africa to help combat malaria
India extends nationwide lockdown until end of May
COVID-19 in Augsburg: Obduktionen zeigen schwere Lungenschädigungen
Virologe Streeck wehrt sich gegen Vorwürfe: „Doof gelaufen“
Landmark recommendations on development of artificial intelligence and the future of global health
Erfolgreicher Sonderforschungsbereich zu Hepatitis-Viren und Immunabwehr
Leibniz-WissenschaftsCampus EvoLUNG erhält erneut Förderung
Turkey records 29 deaths, 987 new COVID-19 cases
People with substance use disorders face greater challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic
France says no sign of virus rise after lockdown eased
Americans and Europeans soak up the sun amid new rules
Corona-Antikörpertests: Sichere Ergebnisse im Fokus
Sozioökonomische Faktoren beeinflussen Lebensqualität nach einer Herzoperation
Canada and the U.S. working on extending border closure
Moleküle in Zellen zerstörungsfrei analysieren
Analysis of COVID-19 genomes reveals large numbers of introductions to the UK in March
Palliative care for heart failure patients may lower rehospitalization risk and improve outcomes
Britain divided over reopening schools as virus rules ease
Herz und Lunge: Studienprojekt zu COVID-19-Folgen bei Sportlern
Study reveals 'extensive' financial links between leaders of US medical societies and industry
Leitlinie „Neurogene Dysphagie“ komplett überarbeitet
Selbsttonometrie und telemedizinischer Datentransfer: Kick-off-Video zum SALUS-Projekt jetzt online
Compression stockings might not be needed to prevent blood clots after surgery
Germany kicks off as Europe eases curbs but virus marches on
Common misunderstandings doctors confront about preventing pregnancy
Virus spread 'still accelerating' in Brazil, Peru, Chile: WHO regional office
Produce-buying incentive program a win-win for Oregon consumers and farmers
Schmerzen bei Rheuma: Immer mehr Patienten nehmen Opioide ein
COVID-19 patients may have lower stroke rates than previously suggested
Endgültiges Aus für Mentholzigarette in der EU
Infopaket geschnürt: Von der Lupe bis zum Laser-Blindenstock
Chirurgie-Ausbildung mit Roboter und Virtueller Realität
Entwicklung maschineller Lernverfahren: Großer maschinenlesbarer EKG-Datensatz veröffentlicht
Parents struggling to provide for families during pandemic
Misleading information in 1 in 4 most viewed YouTube COVID-19 videos in English
Online exercise advice rarely aligns with national physical activity guidelines
Leberkrebs: Forderung nach mehr Aufmerksamkeit in Bezug auf Hepatitis D
Interdisziplinäre zentrale Ultraschalleinheit des UKL als Ausbildungsstätte anerkannt

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Next Post

COVID-19 trial finder provides simplified search process for COVID-related clinical trials

Sat May 16 , 2020
Researchers at Columbia University have developed COVID-19 Trial Finder, a simplified method for patients, clinicians and healthy volunteers to search for appropriate COVID-related clinical trials in their general location. This system also allows potential candidates to pre-screen their eligibility for such trials through a set of short medical questions. There […]