“Neandertal”-Gen sorgt für erhöhte Fruchtbarkeit

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Eine von drei Frauen in Europa hat den Rezeptor für Progesteron von Neandertalern geerbt; eine Genvariante, die mit erhöhter Fruchtbarkeit, weniger Blutungen zu Beginn der Schwangerschaft und weniger Fehlgeburten in Verbindung steht. Dies geht aus einer Studie hervor, die in der Zeitschrift Molecular Biology and Evolution von Forschenden des Max-Planck-Instituts für evolutionäre Anthropologie in Leipzig und des Karolinska Institutet in Schweden veröffentlicht wurde.

“Der Progesteronrezeptor ist ein Beispiel dafür, wie günstige genetische Varianten, die durch die Vermischung mit Neandertalern auf den modernen Menschen übertragen wurden, Auswirkungen auf heute lebende Menschen haben können”, sagt Hugo Zeberg, Forscher am Max-Planck-Institut für evolutionäre Anthropologie (MPI-EVA) und am Karolinska Institutet, der die aktuelle Studie gemeinsam mit Janet Kelso und Svante Pääbo durchgeführt hat.

“Der Anteil der Frauen, die dieses Gen geerbt haben, ist etwa zehnmal so hoch wie bei den meisten anderen Neandertaler-Genvarianten”, sagt Hugo Zeberg. “Unsere Ergebnisse deuten darauf hin, dass sich die Neandertaler-Variante des Rezeptors günstig auf die Fruchtbarkeit auswirkt”, sagt Hugo Zeberg.

Die Studie zeigt, dass Frauen, die die Neandertaler-Variante des Rezeptors besitzen, in der Regel weniger Blutungen zu Beginn der Schwangerschaft und weniger Fehlgeburten haben. Darüber hinaus bringen sie mehr Kinder zur Welt. Molekulare Analysen ergaben, dass diese Frauen mehr Progesteronrezeptoren in ihren Zellen produzieren, was zu einer erhöhten Empfindlichkeit gegenüber Progesteron und somit zum Schutz vor frühen Fehlgeburten und Blutungen führen kann.

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