Scientists identify human genes that fight infection — ScienceDaily


Scientists at Sanford Burnham Prebys have identified a set of human genes that fight SARS-CoV-2 infection, the virus that causes COVID-19. Knowing which genes help control viral infection can greatly assist researchers’ understanding of factors that affect disease severity and also suggest possible therapeutic options. The genes in question are related to interferons, the body’s frontline virus fighters.

The study was published in the journal Molecular Cell.

“We wanted to gain a better understanding of the cellular response to SARS-CoV-2, including what drives a strong or weak response to infection,” says Sumit K. Chanda, Ph.D., professor and director of the Immunity and Pathogenesis Program at Sanford Burnham Prebys and lead author of the study. “We’ve gained new insights into how the virus exploits the human cells it invades, but we are still searching for its Achille’s heel so that we can develop optimal antivirals.”

Soon after the start of the pandemic, clinicians found that a weak interferon response to SARS-CoV-2 infection resulted in some of the more severe cases of COVID-19. This knowledge led Chanda and his collaborators to search for the human genes that are triggered by interferons, known as interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), which act to limit SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Based on knowledge gleaned from SARS-CoV-1, the virus that caused a deadly, but relatively brief, outbreak of disease from 2002 to 2004, and knowing that it was similar to SARS-CoV-2, the investigators were able to develop laboratory experiments to identify the ISGs that control viral replication in COVID-19.

“We found that 65 ISGs controlled SARS-CoV-2 infection, including some that inhibited the virus’ ability to enter cells, some that suppressed manufacture of the RNA that is the virus’s lifeblood, and a cluster of genes that inhibited assembly of the virus,” says Chanda. “What was also of great interest was the fact that some of the ISGs exhibited control across unrelated viruses, such as seasonal flu, West Nile and HIV, which leads to AIDS.”

“We identified eight ISGs that inhibited both SARS-CoV-1 and CoV-2 replication in the subcellular compartment responsible for protein packaging, suggesting this vulnerable site could be exploited to clear viral infection,” says Laura Martin-Sancho, Ph.D., a senior postdoctoral associate in the Chanda lab and first author of this study. “This is important information, but we still need to learn more about the biology of the virus and investigate if genetic variability within these ISGs correlates with COVID-19 severity.”

As a next step, the researchers will look at the biology of SARS-CoV-2 variants that continue to evolve and threaten vaccine efficacy. Martin-Sancho notes that they have already started gathering variants for laboratory investigation,

“It’s vitally important that we don’t take our foot off the pedal of basic research efforts now that vaccines are helping control the pandemic,” concludes Chanda. “We’ve come so far so fast because of investment in fundamental research at Sanford Burnham Prebys and elsewhere, and our continued efforts will be especially important when, not if, another viral outbreak occurs.”

Additional study authors include Lars Pache, Anshu P. Gounder, Courtney Nguyen, Yuan Pu, Heather M. Curry, Paul D. De Jesus, Ariel Rodriguez-Frandsen and Xin Yin at Sanford Burnham Prebys. Other authors include Mary K. Lewinski, Charlotte A. Stoneham, Aaron L. Oom, and John Guatelli at the University of California at San Diego and the VA San Diego Healthcare System; Mark Becker, Thomas J. Hope and Judd F. Hultquist at the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine; Dexter Pratt, Christopher Churas, Sara B. Rosenthal, Sophie Liu, Fan Zheng, Max W. Chang, Christopher Benner, Trey Ideker and Alan M. O’Neill at the University of California San Diego; Lisa Miorin, Matthew Urbanowski, Megan L. Shaw and Adolfo García-Sastre at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai; Stuart Weston and Matthew B. Frieman at the University of Maryland School of Medicine; and Chunxiang Wu and Yong Xiong at Yale University.



Source link

Postime të ngjashme

STDs reach all-time in US for sixth consecutive year


The number of sexually transmitted diseases reached an all-time high in the U.S. for the sixth consecutive year, a new report finds.

In 2019, there were 2.5 million cases of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis, the three most commonly reported STDs, according to new data published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) on Tuesday.

This marks a nearly 30 percent increase in STDs reported to the federal health agency between 2015 and 2019.  

What’s more, the most striking increase was in syphilis cases among newborns, known as congenital syphilis, which nearly quadrupled over the past five years. 

In 2019, there were 2.5 million cases of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis, the three most commonly reported STDs, marking the sixth consecutive year STDs have reached an all-time high, according to the CDC

In 2019, there were 2.5 million cases of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis, the three most commonly reported STDs, marking the sixth consecutive year STDs have reached an all-time high, according to the CDC

‘Less than 20 years ago, gonorrhea rates in the U.S. were at historic lows, syphilis was close to elimination, and advances in chlamydia diagnostics made it easier to detect infections,’ said DR Raul Romaguera,, acting director for the CDC’s Division of STD Prevention. 

‘That progress has since unraveled, and our STD defenses are down. We must prioritize and focUs our efforts to regain this lost ground and control the spread of STDs.’ 

An STD is an infection that is passed from one person to another through sexual contact either vaginally, orally or anally.

Some are bacterial infections that are curable with a single-dose regimen of antibiotics while others are viral infections that cannot be cured but can be modulated with antivirals.

STDs do not always have symptoms and, if left diagnosed and untreated, can have serious health consequences.

Some infections can increase the risk of HIV or cause chronic pelvic pain, pelvic inflammatory disease and even infertility.

Currently, STDs cause about 2.7 deaths per 100,000 people, primarily due to HIV and HPV (human papillomavirus) infections.

For the report, the CDC looked at common of STDs in 2019, which did not include cases of genital herpes, HPV or HIV.

Data showed 1.8 million cases of chlamydia, 616,000 cases gonorrhea and 129,000 cases of syphilis. 

Comparatively, in 2000, there were 709,000 cases of chlamydia, 363,000 cases gonorrhea and 31,000 cases of syphilis. 

Young people between ages 15 and 24 accounted for 61% of chlamydia cases (above) and 42% of gonorrhea cases

Young people between ages 15 and 24 accounted for 61% of chlamydia cases (above) and 42% of gonorrhea cases

Gay and bisexual made up nearly half of all syphilis cases (above) compared to heterosexual men and women with various partners

Gay and bisexual made up nearly half of all syphilis cases (above) compared to heterosexual men and women with various partners

The report found that there are disparities in STDs, which continue to hit racial  groups, gay and bisexual men, and young adults the hardest.

Hispanic people were up to twice as likely to have an STD compared to white people and African Americans were up to eight times more likely.

Gay and bisexual made up nearly half of all syphilis cases and had rates of gonorrhea that were 42-fold higher than rates of heterosexual men in some areas.

Additionally, young people between ages 15 and 24 accounted 61 percent of chlamydia cases and 42 percent of gonorrhea cases.      

‘Focusing on hard-hit populations is critical to reducing disparities,’ said Jo Valentine, associate director of the Office of Health Equity in CDC’s Division of STD Prevention, in a statement. 

‘To effectively reduce these disparities, the social, cultural, and economic conditions that make it more difficult for some populations to stay healthy must be addressed. These include poverty, unstable housing, drug use, lack of medical insurance or regular medical provider, and high burden of STDs in some communities.’

The most striking increase was in syphilis cases among newborns, known as congenital syphilis, which nearly quadrupled over the past five years (above)

The most striking increase was in syphilis cases among newborns, known as congenital syphilis, which nearly quadrupled over the past five years (above)

The report also found that the rate of congenital syphilis was 48.5 cases per 100,000 live births in 2019, which has been rising every year since 2013.

The rate represents a 41.4 percent increase from o 2018 and 291.1 percent increase from 2015.

This increase also led to a rise in syphilitic stillbirths increased, from 79 in 2018 to 94 in and 2019 syphilis-related infant deaths from 15 to 34 deaths.

The CDC notes that key to decreasing congenital syphilis rates is an increase in prenatal care in underserved communities as well as timely testing. 

Even  before the COVID-19 pandemic, officials had seen declines in in STD screening, treatment, prevention, and partner services.

To reduce STD numbers, the CDC recommends STD express clinics with walk-in testing and treatment, telemedicine appointments for hard-to-reach groups and partnerships with pharmacies to provide both testing and medication. 

‘STDs will not wait for the pandemic to end, so we must rise to the challenge now,’ Romaguera said.

‘These new data should create a sense of urgency and mobilize the resources needed, so that future reports can tell a different story.’



Source link

Postime të ngjashme

Cilat janë pasojat e abuzimit me droga dhe varësitë ?

Pasojat e abuzimit me droga,dhe varësitë

Drogat janë lëndë kimike që prekin Sistemin Nervor (Trurin),dhe trupin.Pasojat e përdorimit të drogave janë shumë të gjata,dhe të përhershme,bile janë prezente edhe gjatë stopimit të tyre.Llojet e tyre janë të shumta,por më të zakonshmet prej abuzuesëve janë:
~Kanabisi
~Kokaina
~Heroina
~LSD
~Ektazi
~Amfetaminat
~Krokodil

Mënyra e përdorimit të tyre është:Inhalimi (Thithja zakonisht me hundë),Injektimi në vena me gjilpëra,dhe gëlltitja e tyre.Arritja e tyre në organizëm varet nga rruga e marrjes,mënyra më e shpejt është ajo me gjilpëra.Të gjitha drogat prekin trurin,ato shkaktojnë sasi të mëdha të Dopaminës (Një neurotransmetues që bënë rregullimin e emocioneve,motivacioneve,ndjenjën e knaqësisë-që nga përdoruesit njihet si FEELING HIGH).
Drogat eventualishtë mundë të ndryshojnë punën normale të funksionimit të trurit.Ato shumë shpejtë zhvillojnë varësi psiqike dhe fizike.
Sot,më shumë se 7 milionë njerzë janë përdorues të drogave.
Pasojat e përdorimit të drogave janë KATASTROFALE.Përdoruesit janë problem madhorë i familjes,shoqërisë dhe shtetit.
Zakonisht përdoruesit zanafillën e përdorimit të tyre e kanë në adoleshencë,shumica prej tyre nga kurreshtja,dhe shoqria jo e shëndoshë.Porta hyrëse në “botën” e drogërave,është Kanabisi ose Marihuana.Pas një kohe shumë të shkurtër përdoruesit përfundojnë në Heroinë dhe Kokainë.
Pasi të shfaqet Adikcioni-Varësia,përdoruesit ndjejnë dëshirë të madhe për tu droguar.Në të kundërtën shfaqen shenjat psiqike dhe fizike që janë shumë të rënda(Sindromi i Abstinencës).Në këtë mënyrë përdoruesi bënë ç’mos,për të ardhur deri tek droga,duke shfaqur agresivitet me familjen,rrethin,duke vjedhur duke pirë alkohol.Pastaj shfaqet TOLERANCA,që donë të thotë,dozat e mëhershme të drogës,tashmë nuk funksionojnë.Në këtë stad,përdoruesi rritë dozën deri në atë shkallë që arritë efektin HIGH,dhe shpeshëherë në këtë stad vdesin nga MBIDOZA.
Përdoruesit me shiringa,fitojnë infeksione të rënda si HIV,Hepatit B,C.
Pasojat ekonomike janë të rënda,shpesh herë duke shitur gjithqka që posedojnë,edhe shtëpinë.
Mjekimi i tyre,është mjaftë i vështirë.Perdoruesit shpesh bëjnë RELAPS (Pas largimit nga droga kthehen përsëri në të).Mjekimi kryesorë bëhet me Metadon (edhe kjo një drogë sintetike që prodhohet nga farmacitë).Rikthimi në shoqëri apo ri-socializimi është i rëndësishëm.
Mjekimi më i mirë i varësisë nga droga është mos kontakti i parë me të.

Shkruan:
Dr.med.Desaret Murati

Postime të ngjashme

Coronavirus: People living with someone with weak immune system to be put on jab priority list


Healthy under-50s who live with an adult with a weak immune system will be added to the UK’s Covid vaccine priority list.

Health Secretary Matt Hancock confirmed today that all adults who share a home with someone who is immunocompromised will be offered a vaccine by mid-April.

Those include people living with someone who is having chemotherapy, has HIV or blood cancer, or are taking drugs to dampen their immune system after an organ transplant.

Vaccines don’t work as well in these people because the immune system’s reaction to the jab is what protects people from the virus. If their body can’t muster a strong response to the vaccine it can’t form the cells needed for long-term immunity.

So although the patients themselves are already on the priority list and have mostly been vaccinated already, jabbing their households will protect them even more by preventing the virus getting into their home, health chiefs hope.   

Mr Hancock told the NHS to expand the roll-out after being advised to do it by the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation (JCVI). Officials have not given a figure for how many people will be bumped up the priority list.

The same move has not been made for family members of children with weak immune systems because children are not at risk of severe Covid-19 except in very rare circumstances. 

Today’s decision follows the addition of all adults with learning disabilities to the priority list in February. 

Health Secretary Matt Hancock confirmed today that all adults who share a home with someone who is immunocompromised will be offered a vaccine by mid-April (Pictured: A man gets vaccinated in Belfast)

Health Secretary Matt Hancock confirmed today that all adults who share a home with someone who is immunocompromised will be offered a vaccine by mid-April (Pictured: A man gets vaccinated in Belfast)

This is the basic vaccine priority list – since it was drawn up, adults with learning disabilities and those who live with people with weak immune systems have been added to group six

 This is the basic vaccine priority list – since it was drawn up, adults with learning disabilities and those who live with people with weak immune systems have been added to group six

Professor Wei Shen Lim, chair of Covid vaccines at the JCVI, said: ‘The vaccination programme has so far seen high vaccine uptake and very encouraging results on infection rates, hospitalisations and mortality.

‘Yet we know that the vaccine isn’t as effective in those who are immunosuppressed.

‘Our latest advice will help reduce the risk of infection in those who may not be able to fully benefit from being vaccinated themselves.’

The move is understood to be the first time entire households are being prioritised in the vaccination programme because of someone they live with.

The hope is that vaccines successfully stop transmission of the virus and immunising housemates and family members will prevent Covid getting into the house.

There is ‘increasing evidence’ that this will work as hoped, the JCVI said.

Dr Mary Ramsay, head of vaccines at Public Health England, said: ‘Our surveillance systems and research studies are showing the vaccines can reduce asymptomatic infection and limit transmission of the virus.

‘By vaccinating those who live with adults who are immunosuppressed, we can further help protect vulnerable people.’

SINGLE JAB CUTS COVID CASES BY 62% IN CARE HOMES 

Just one dose of a coronavirus jab more than halves the risk of a care home resident catching the disease, a study has found.

Scientists from University College London saw that infection rates fell by 62 per cent five weeks after someone’s first dose of a jab, and 56 per cent after four weeks. 

This suggests at least half of England’s care home residents are now protected from the disease – 10,321 out of 10,413 homes across the nation were visited by medics by the end of January.

More than 41,000 care home residents have died of Covid during the pandemic and the survivors were top of the vaccine priority list because they are at such high risk.

UCL’s study, which looked at more than 10,000 people, was one of the first to look at how well vaccines protected elderly people. Researchers said there was ‘substantial’ protection.

Dr Laura Shallcross added: ‘A single dose has a protective effect that persists from four weeks to at least seven weeks after vaccination. 

‘Vaccination reduces the total number of people who get infected, and analysis of lab samples suggests care home residents who are infected after having the vaccine may also be less likely to transmit the virus.’

People with weakened immune systems are among those who will still be at risk even when the jab roll-out is complete because vaccines may not work for many of them.

Scientists and ministers have repeatedly warned there will be more hospital admissions and deaths from Covid in a third wave and people for whom the jabs don’t work are likely make up a large proportion of them. 

People in the immunosuppressed group include people who:

  • Are having cancer treatment such as chemo or radiotherapy;
  • Have a cancer that affects the immune system such as leukaemia or lymphoma;
  • Have HIV or AIDS;
  • Have had an organ transplant;
  • Take medicine to weaken their immune system to control illnesses such as rheumatoid arthritis or Crohn’s disease.

Only over-16s who live with the patients will get the jab because none have yet been approved for use in children.

And the household members will be listed alongside JCVI priority group six, which includes the patients themselves and other adults with serious health conditions.     

In a reply letter to the JCVI, Mr Hancock said: ‘I am asking NHS England and Improvement to take this advice forward and prioritise household contacts of the severely immunosuppressed for vaccination as you recommend.

‘My officials have also shared your advice with colleagues leading the Covid-19 vaccines programmes in each of the four nations of the UK.’

The most recent tweak to the vaccine priority list was the addition of all adults with learning disabilities in February, which came after a campaign by BBC radio DJ Jo Whiley, whose sister is learning disabled and caught Covid.

The JCVI added people in this group into priority group six. 

Whiley praised the policy change as ‘absolutely crucial’ and said she was ‘delighted’. She said her 53-year-old sister Frances, who was hospitalised with the virus, was ‘doing great’ after recovering. 

Anyone who is on the GP Learning Disability Register is now eligible for a vaccine, the JCVI said, regardless of how severe their disability is. 

People with profound disabilities were already in group six but it now includes milder conditions, officials said, because the register may not differentiate between them.

This register is open to anyone with a diagnosed learning disability. These include autism and Asperger’s, William’s syndrome, global developmental delay and cerebral palsy.



Source link

Postime të ngjashme

Infeksionet virale, zbulohen qelizat burimore me efektivitet të lartë për t’i luftuar


Një zbulim italian që ndryshon mënyrën e trajtimit të infeksioneve virale. Qelizat burimore të reja super-efikase janë zbuluar nga studiuesit e Spitalit Pediatrik Bambino Gesù dhe Universitetit të Genovës në bashkëpunim me Spitalin Pediatrik Istituto Gaslini, spitalin Sacro Cuore Don Calabria, Universitetin e Torinos, spitalin Sanremo dhe Policlinico San Spitali Martino, në sajë të kërkimeve të financuara kryesisht nga Fondacioni AIRC, dhe botuar në Journal of Alergy and Clinical Immunology.

Në vijën e parë të mbrojtjes

Rezultatet u morën falë një studimi të kryer në mostrat e gjakut nga fëmijët dhe të rriturit me HIV, hepatit C dhe infeksion citomegalovirus. Hetimet laboratorike çuan në zbulimin e dy llojeve të reja të qelizave burimore, të identifikuara falë karakteristikave të veçanta (shënuesve) të sipërfaqes së qelizave të tyre. Në praktikë, qelizat vrasëse natyrore (NK) janë në ballë të mbrojtjes kundër infeksioneve virale, por edhe kundër rritjes së tumoreve dhe përhapjes së metastazave. Ata kanë një jetë të shkurtër (disa ditë) dhe kërkojnë një qarkullim të vazhdueshëm i cili garantohet nga qelizat burimore nga të cilat burojnë të gjitha qelizat e gjakut.

Nevojiten gjithnjë e më shumë

Në disa kushte patologjike, të tilla si infeksionet virale dhe sëmundje të tjera inflamatore, përdorimi dhe “rraskapitja” e mundshme e NK rritet ndjeshëm. Për të përmbushur nevojat e trupit, qelizat burimore aktivizohen, ato fillojnë të ndahen dhe të japin qeliza të ndryshme mbrojtëse të gjakut, në veçanti NK. Sidoqoftë, duhen shumë javë për të pasur qeliza NK të pjekura dhe të armatosura në mënyrë të përsosur, dhe kjo mund të krijojë vështirësi kur bëhet fjalë për të luftuar kundër agresivitetit dhe replikimit të shpejtë të virusit gjatë infektimit.

Një rezervë shumë e çmuar

“Qelizat staminale të identifikuara me hulumtimet tona janë gjurmuar në sasi të mëdha në gjakun e pacientëve me infeksione virale. andaj, ato përfaqësojnë një mënyrë të shkurtër të përdorur nga sistemi imunitar për të gjeneruar shpejt NK kur ka nevojë për armë të reja kundër patogjenëve”, shpjegojnë Lorenzo Moretta, kreu i Zonës së Kërkimit të Imunologjisë Child Jesus dhe Andrea De Maria i Departamentit të Shëndetësisë Shkencat e Universitetit të Gjenovës.

“Pasi të jenë izoluar dhe vendosur në laborator, qelizat e reja burimore shumohen dhe, në rreth 3 javë, japin rritje të qelizave NK të pjekura, me një aftësi të jashtëzakonshme për të vrarë qelizat kancerogjene dhe të gatshme për të luftuar viruset, veçanërisht citomegalovirusin”, shtojnë ata. “Zbulimi i qelizave të tilla efektive staminale hap udhën drejt përcaktimit të strategjive terapeutike për t’i shfrytëzuar në maksimum ato”, thekson Moretta. “Imagjinoni, për shembull, ilaçe që mund t’i forcojnë më tej ato ose që mund të shkaktojnë një përhapje të gjerë drejtpërdrejt te pacientë ose në laborator, të ndjekur nga infuzioni te vetë pacientët.”

Edhe kundër Covid-19

“Hetime të tjera kanë identifikuar një numër veçanërisht të lartë të qelizave të reja burimore edhe te pacientët me Covid-19 – thotë De Maria -. Këto të dhëna mund të ofrojnë njohuri të reja për të kuptuar më mirë sëmundjen serioze të shkaktuar nga virusi SARS-CoV-2 (për shembull duke studiuar korrelacionet e mundshme midis frekuencës së qelizave të reja burimore dhe evolucionit të Covid-19) dhe për të hartuar ndërhyrje të reja efektive”.

Një infeksion viral është një gjendje patologjike e shkaktuar nga viruset. Antibiotikët janë joefektivë për ta luftuar, ndërsa ka ilaçe antivirale dhe madje disa vaksina që ofrojnë mbrojtje të mirë. /Pernenat.al

Postime të ngjashme

Vaksina Oxford/AstraZeneca COVID-19: “Çfarë, duhet të dini”?


Kush duhet të vaksinohet i pari?

ndërsa furnizimet e vaksinave janë të kufizuara, rekomandohet që përparësi t’u jepen punonjësve shëndetësorë me rrezik të lartë të ekspozimit dhe njerëzve të moshuar, duke përfshirë ata të moshës 65 vjeç ose më të vjetër.

Vendet mund t’i referohen Udhërrëfyesit për Priorizim të OBSH-së dhe Kornizës së Vlerave të OBSH-së si udhëzues për përparësitë e tyre për grupet e synuara.

Kush tjetër mund të marrë vaksinën?

Vaksinimi rekomandohet për personat me sëmundje shoqëruese që janë identifikuar se rrisin rrezikun e COVID-19 të rëndë, përfshirë obezitetin, sëmundjet kardiovaskulare, sëmundjet e frymëmarrjes dhe diabetin (sëmundjen e sheqerit).

Megjithëse kërkohen studime të mëtejshme për personat që jetojnë me HIV ose kushte auto-imune ose që janë të dëmtuar nga imuniteti, njerëzit në këtë kategori që janë pjesë e një grupi të rekomanduar për vaksinim mund të vaksinohen pasi të marrin informacion dhe këshillim.

Vaksinimi mund t’u ofrohet personave që kanë pasur COVID-19 në të kaluarën. Por individët mund të dëshirojnë të shtyjnë vaksinimin e tyre COVID-19 për deri në gjashtë muaj nga koha e infektimit me SARS-CoV-2, për të lejuar që të tjerët që mund të kenë nevojë më vaksinë të shkojnë më parë.

Vaksinimi mund t’u ofrohet grave që ushqejnë me gji Po qe se ato janë pjesë e një grupi me përparësi për vaksinim. OBSH s’ rekomandon ndërprerjen e ushqyerjes me gji pas vaksinimit.

A duhet të vaksinohen gratë shtatzëna?

ndërsa shtatëzania i vë gratë në rrezik më të lartë të COVID-19 të rëndë, shumë pak të dhëna janë në dispozicion për të vlerësuar sigurinë e vaksinave në shtatzëni.

Gratë shtatzëna mund të marrin vaksinën Po qe se përfitimi nga vaksinimi i një gruaje shtatzënë tejkalon rreziqet e mundshme të vaksinës.

Për këtë arsye, gratë shtatzëna me rrezik të lartë të ekspozimit ndaj SARS-CoV-2 (p.sh. punëtorë shëndetësorë) ose që kanë bashkë sëmundje që shtojnë rrezikun e tyre të sëmundjes së rëndë, mund të vaksinohen në konsultim me ofruesin e tyre të kujdesit shëndetësor.

Për kë s’ rekomandohet vaksina?

Njerëzit me një histori të reaksionit të rëndë alergjik ndaj ndonjë përbërësi të vaksinës s’ duhet ta marrin atë.

Vaksina s’ rekomandohet për personat më të vegjël se 18 vjeç në pritje të rezultateve të studimeve të mëtejshme.

Cila është doza e rekomanduar?

Doza e rekomanduar është dy doza të dhëna në mënyrë intramuskulare (0.5ml secila) me një interval prej 8 deri në 12 javë.

Nevojiten hulumtime shtesë për të kuptuar mbrojtjen afatgjatë të mundshme pas një doze të vetme.

A është e sigurt?

Dy versione të vaksinës – prodhuar nga AstraZeneca-SKBio (Republika e Koresë) dhe Instituti i Serumit i Indisë – janë renditur për përdorim urgjent nga OBSH. Kur vaksina iu nënshtrua shqyrtimit të SAGE, ajo i ishte nënshtruar rishikimit nga Agjencia Evropiane e Barnave (EMA).

EMA ka vlerësuar tërësisht të dhënat mbi cilësinë, sigurinë dhe efikasitetin e vaksinës dhe ka rekomanduar dhënien e një autorizimi të kushtëzuar të marketingut për njerëzit e moshës 18 vjeç e lart.

Komiteti Global Këshillëdhënës për Sigurinë e Vaksinave, një grup ekspertësh që siguron udhëzime të pavarura dhe autoritare për OBSH-në në temën e përdorimit të sigurt të vaksinave, merr dhe vlerëson raporte të ngjarjeve të dyshuara të sigurisë me ndikim potencial ndërkombëtar.

Sa efikase është vaksina?

Vaksina AZD1222 kundër COVID-19 ka një efikasitet prej 63.09% kundër infeksionit simptomatik SARS-CoV-2.

Intervalet e dozave më të gjata brenda intervalit prej 8 deri në 12 javë shoqërohen me efikasitet më të madh të vaksinës.

A funksionon kundër varianteve të reja?

SAGE ka shqyrtuar të gjitha të dhënat e disponueshme për performancën e vaksinës në mjediset e varianteve alarmante. SAGE aktualisht rekomandon përdorimin e vaksinës AZD1222 sipas Udhërrëfyesit të Priorizimit të OBSH-së, edhe Po qe se variante të virusit janë të pranishme në një vend. Vendet duhet të vlerësojnë rreziqet dhe përfitimet duke marrë parasysh situatën e tyre epidemiologjike.

Gjetjet paraprake theksojnë nevojën urgjente për një qasje të koordinuar për mbikëqyrjen dhe vlerësimin e varianteve dhe ndikimin e tyre të mundshëm në efektivitetin e vaksinës. ndërsa të dhënat e reja bëhen të disponueshme, OBSH do të azhurnojë rekomandimet në përputhje me rrethana.

A e parandalon infeksionin dhe transmetimin?

s’ ka të dhëna thelbësore në lidhje me ndikimin e AZD1222 në transmetimin ose derdhjen virale.

Në ndërkohë, ne duhet të mbajmë dhe forcojmë masat e shëndetit publik që funksionojnë: maskimi, distancimi fizik, larja e duarve, higjiena e frymëmarrjes dhe kollës, shmangia e turmave dhe sigurimi i ventilimit të mirë. /FamiljaJonë/

Postime të ngjashme

Vaksina Oxford/AstraZeneca COVID-19:”Çfarë, duhet të dini”?


Kush duhet të vaksinohet i pari?

ndërsa furnizimet e vaksinave janë të kufizuara, rekomandohet që përparësi t’u jepen punonjësve shëndetësorë me rrezik të lartë të ekspozimit dhe njerëzve të moshuar, duke përfshirë ata të moshës 65 vjeç ose më të vjetër.

Vendet mund t’i referohen Udhërrëfyesit për Priorizim të OBSH-së dhe Kornizës së Vlerave të OBSH-së si udhëzues për përparësitë e tyre për grupet e synuara.

Kush tjetër mund të marrë vaksinën?

Vaksinimi rekomandohet për personat me sëmundje shoqëruese që janë identifikuar se rrisin rrezikun e COVID-19 të rëndë, përfshirë obezitetin, sëmundjet kardiovaskulare, sëmundjet e frymëmarrjes dhe diabetin (sëmundjen e sheqerit).

Megjithëse kërkohen studime të mëtejshme për personat që jetojnë me HIV ose kushte auto-imune ose që janë të dëmtuar nga imuniteti, njerëzit në këtë kategori që janë pjesë e një grupi të rekomanduar për vaksinim mund të vaksinohen pasi të marrin informacion dhe këshillim.

Vaksinimi mund t’u ofrohet personave që kanë pasur COVID-19 në të kaluarën. Por individët mund të dëshirojnë të shtyjnë vaksinimin e tyre COVID-19 për deri në gjashtë muaj nga koha e infektimit me SARS-CoV-2, për të lejuar që të tjerët që mund të kenë nevojë më vaksinë të shkojnë më parë.

Vaksinimi mund t’u ofrohet grave që ushqejnë me gji Po qe se ato janë pjesë e një grupi me përparësi për vaksinim. OBSH s’ rekomandon ndërprerjen e ushqyerjes me gji pas vaksinimit.

A duhet të vaksinohen gratë shtatzëna?

ndërsa shtatëzania i vë gratë në rrezik më të lartë të COVID-19 të rëndë, shumë pak të dhëna janë në dispozicion për të vlerësuar sigurinë e vaksinave në shtatzëni.

Gratë shtatzëna mund të marrin vaksinën Po qe se përfitimi nga vaksinimi i një gruaje shtatzënë tejkalon rreziqet e mundshme të vaksinës.

Për këtë arsye, gratë shtatzëna me rrezik të lartë të ekspozimit ndaj SARS-CoV-2 (p.sh. punëtorë shëndetësorë) ose që kanë bashkë sëmundje që shtojnë rrezikun e tyre të sëmundjes së rëndë, mund të vaksinohen në konsultim me ofruesin e tyre të kujdesit shëndetësor.

Për kë s’ rekomandohet vaksina?

Njerëzit me një histori të reaksionit të rëndë alergjik ndaj ndonjë përbërësi të vaksinës s’ duhet ta marrin atë.

Vaksina s’ rekomandohet për personat më të vegjël se 18 vjeç në pritje të rezultateve të studimeve të mëtejshme.

Cila është doza e rekomanduar?

Doza e rekomanduar është dy doza të dhëna në mënyrë intramuskulare (0.5ml secila) me një interval prej 8 deri në 12 javë.

Nevojiten hulumtime shtesë për të kuptuar mbrojtjen afatgjatë të mundshme pas një doze të vetme.

A është e sigurt?

Dy versione të vaksinës – prodhuar nga AstraZeneca-SKBio (Republika e Koresë) dhe Instituti i Serumit i Indisë – janë renditur për përdorim urgjent nga OBSH. Kur vaksina iu nënshtrua shqyrtimit të SAGE, ajo i ishte nënshtruar rishikimit nga Agjencia Evropiane e Barnave (EMA).

EMA ka vlerësuar tërësisht të dhënat mbi cilësinë, sigurinë dhe efikasitetin e vaksinës dhe ka rekomanduar dhënien e një autorizimi të kushtëzuar të marketingut për njerëzit e moshës 18 vjeç e lart.

Komiteti Global Këshillëdhënës për Sigurinë e Vaksinave, një grup ekspertësh që siguron udhëzime të pavarura dhe autoritare për OBSH-në në temën e përdorimit të sigurt të vaksinave, merr dhe vlerëson raporte të ngjarjeve të dyshuara të sigurisë me ndikim potencial ndërkombëtar.

Sa efikase është vaksina?

Vaksina AZD1222 kundër COVID-19 ka një efikasitet prej 63.09% kundër infeksionit simptomatik SARS-CoV-2.

Intervalet e dozave më të gjata brenda intervalit prej 8 deri në 12 javë shoqërohen me efikasitet më të madh të vaksinës.

A funksionon kundër varianteve të reja?

SAGE ka shqyrtuar të gjitha të dhënat e disponueshme për performancën e vaksinës në mjediset e varianteve alarmante. SAGE aktualisht rekomandon përdorimin e vaksinës AZD1222 sipas Udhërrëfyesit të Priorizimit të OBSH-së, edhe Po qe se variante të virusit janë të pranishme në një vend. Vendet duhet të vlerësojnë rreziqet dhe përfitimet duke marrë parasysh situatën e tyre epidemiologjike.

Gjetjet paraprake theksojnë nevojën urgjente për një qasje të koordinuar për mbikëqyrjen dhe vlerësimin e varianteve dhe ndikimin e tyre të mundshëm në efektivitetin e vaksinës. ndërsa të dhënat e reja bëhen të disponueshme, OBSH do të azhurnojë rekomandimet në përputhje me rrethana.

A e parandalon infeksionin dhe transmetimin?

s’ ka të dhëna thelbësore në lidhje me ndikimin e AZD1222 në transmetimin ose derdhjen virale.

Në ndërkohë, ne duhet të mbajmë dhe forcojmë masat e shëndetit publik që funksionojnë: maskimi, distancimi fizik, larja e duarve, higjiena e frymëmarrjes dhe kollës, shmangia e turmave dhe sigurimi i ventilimit të mirë. /FamiljaJonë/

Postime të ngjashme

Shmangni djersitjen e tepërt me anë të këtyre metodave


Djersitja është një proces natyral dhe shumë i dobishëm për organizmin. Mirëpo ajo ka një aromë të pakëndshme, sidomos gjatë sezonës së verës. Djersitja është një mënyrë natyrale me anë të së cilës trupi lirohet nga toksinat. Disa njerëz djersiten më shumë dhe disa jo. Djersitja e tepërt konsiderohet si çrregullim dhe quhet hiperhidrozë.

Disa nga shkaqet patologjike te djersitjes së tepërt janë: Hipoglukemia, ankthi, depresioni, HIV-i, apo çrregullimet me gjëndra.

Disa nga metodat me anë të së cilave parandalohet djersitja e tepërt janë:

Aplikoni deodorant– Sigurisht që aplikimi i deodorantit është i domosdoshëm. Aplikojeni atë që në mëngjes, në mënyrë që të parandaloni djersitjen e tepërt gjatë ditës.

Shmangni ushqimet pikante– Disa ushqime siç janë specat dhe erëza të tjera përmbajnë vajra, të cilat stimulojnë gjëndrat e djersës dhe i japin trupit aromë të pakëndshme. Qepa dhe hudhrat gjithashtu shkaktojnë aromë të keqe në trup.

Zvogëloni konsumimin e kafesë– Kafeja mund të jetë arsyeja, që ju jeni duke u djersitur shumë, andaj shmangia e konsumimit të shpeshtë të kafesë mund ta zvogëlojë prodhimin e djersës.

Konsumoni shumë ujë– Uji është shumë i dobishëm për çdo proces në organizëm. Ai e ushqen lëkurën dhe e hidraton atë. Po qe se krijoni shprehi të konsumimit të ujit atëherë krahas efekteve të tjera pozitive, ju do të djersiteni më pak dhe do të ulni temperature e trupit.

Humbni peshë– Yndyra e tepërt e trupit vepron si stimulues i gjëndrave që prodhojnë djersë. Sa më shumë dhjam që keni aq më shumë do të djersiteni, për këtë arsye humbja e peshës është shumë e mirë për shumë procese në organizëm.

Postime të ngjashme

A Po Bëhet Më I Rrezikshëm Virusi? – Flasin specialistët Britanik


Pasi specialistët theksuan se varianti B.1.1.7 i SARS-CoV-2, i zbuluar për herë të parë në Anglinë Juglindore, ishte më ngjitës por jo më vdekjeprurës sesa virusi origjinal, kryeministri britanik Boris Xhonson tha më 22 janar se ky variant dukej se lidhej me një vdekshmëri më të lartë.  Dhje kjo është diçka e pazakontë.

 Zakonisht viruset priren që të bëhen më pak vdekjeprurës me kalimin e kohës. Pse ky virus s’ po ndjek këtë rregull? Që organizmat të shumohen, duhet të kopjohet me kalimin e kohës materiali gjenetik.  Ndonjëherë, gjatë këtij procesi ndodhin gabime, të cilat shndërrohen në mutacione. Mutacione të tilla ndodhin tek kafshët, bimët, kërpudhat, bakteret dhe viruset. Ato janë thuajse gjithmonë fatale, ndaj pasardhësit vdesin me ta para se të mund të shumohen.

Shumë rrallë, gabimi që ka ndodhur i jep një avantazh të tillë që i ndihmon pasardhësit të riprodhohen më me sukses sesa “farefisi” i tyre i pa ndryshuar. Viruset varen nga njerëzit që i përhapin ato dhe shumë prej tyre si HIV, Ebola dhe SARS-i origjinal, e bëjnë zakonisht një person veçanërisht infektiv vetëm pasi të jenë përhapur në të tërë trupin.  Në atë pikë, qelizat e njeriut që e bartin virusin ndodhen nën një sulm në shkallë të gjerë, sistemi imunitar funksionon më shumë sesa duhet, dhe i sëmuri ndihet fizikisht i rraskapitur dhe në një gjendje të tmerrshme.

Nga një perspektivë evolucionare, virusi përfiton Po qe se kjo periudhë e infektivitetit ekstrem vazhdon për aq kohë sa të jetë e mundur, në mënyrë që t’u japë pasardhësve të tij më shumë kohë për t’u përhapur. Por vrasja e bujtësit, i kufizon papritmas shanset që një virus të infektojë të tjerët, edhe Po qe se virusi mund të përhapet nga një kufomë.

Kjo është arsyeja pse mutacionet që e bëjnë një virus më pak vdekjeprurës, favorizohen shpesh nga përzgjedhja natyrore. Sidoqoftë, në rastin e SARS-CoV-2 ky s’ është një faktor, pasi virusi i bën njerëzit më infektivë në kohën kur ata shfaqin simptomat e para, dhe disa javë para se ata të vdesin nga ndërlikimet shëndetësore.

Po qe se një person vdes disa javë pasi ka qenë shumë infektues, kjo gjë s’ ka thuajse asnjë efekt në trajektoren evolucionare të virusit. andaj është po aq e mundshme që mutacionet  rastësore të shfaqen në kodin gjenetik viral, duke e bërë atë më vdekjeprurës, sikurse ka edhe mutacione të tjera po rastësore që e bëjnë atë më pak vdekjeprurës.

B.1.1.7 dhe disa variante të tjera, përfshirë atë të identifikuar së fundmi në Kaliforni të SHBA-së, janë përhapur gjerësisht pasi kanë mutacione që e modifikojnë mjetin që përdor virusi për të okupuar qelizat. SARS-CoV-2 e përdor proteinën e jashtme,për t’u bashkuar me receptorët në sipërfaqet e qelizave, të cilat pasi të aktivizohen, lejojnë që virusi të injektojë brenda materialin e tij gjenetik.

Edhe pse mekanizmi mbetet akoma jo shumë i njohur, ndryshimet në këtë proteinën e ndihmojnë shumë B.1.1.7 dhe variantet e tjera që të depërtojnë në qelizat e njeriut.

Një nga efektet, është se ato janë më infektive. Mister mbetet gjithashtu dhe fakti sesi B.1.1.7 përfundoi me një mutacion që e rrit vdekshmërinë dhe që e bën atë më infektues.  Ndoshta 2 ndryshime të veçanta gjenetike kanë ndodhur në mënyrë të pavarur tek një individ të vetëm i infektuar, por gjithsesi shanset për këtë janë të ulëta. Meqë këto dy mutacione s’ u gjetën në shtame virale individuale para zbulimit të variantit B.1.1.7, s’ ka gjasa që dy variantet e virusit, secili me një nga dy mutacionet, të bashkojnë informacionin e tyre gjenetik tek një person i vetëm fatkeq.


Më i mundshëm, është një rrjet ndërveprimesh molekulare, gjë që do të thotë se shfaqja e një mutacioni shkakton shfaqjen e tjetrit, ashtu si dominotë që rrëzohen mbi njëra-tjetrën. Virologët po mbështesin gjithnjë e më shumë tezën se vetëm një numër i vogël ndryshimeshgjenetike po shkakton ndryshime thelbësore në sjelljen e virusit.

Variantet e reja, janë që të gjitha më të prirura për të pësuar mutacion sesa koronavirusi origjinal që u vërejt në Vuhan në fundin e vitit 2019. Koronaviruset kanë gjenome të mëdha,dhe materiali i tyre shtesë gjenetik, duket sikur është përdorur për të “kontrolluar gabimet” e kopjeve virale që bëhen brenda një qelize pritëse. /Burimi:Panorama

Postime të ngjashme

Çfarë duhet të dini për vaksinën e AstraZenecas, të cilën e pret Kosova?


Vaksinën e AstraZenecas dhe Oxfordit kundër coronavirusit, Kosova pritet ta marrë falas përmes programit të Organizatës Botërore të Shëndetësisë, COVAX, që ka për qëllim të shpërndajë vaksina në vende të varfra.

Sipas një raporti të publikuar më herët gjatë muajit shkurt,Kosova do të marrë nga COVAX-i 100,800 doza të kësaj vaksine.

Kryeministri në detyrë i Kosovës, Avdullah Hoti tha të premten se gjatë muajit mars pritet të arrijë kontingjenti i parë prej 33 mijë dozave të vaksinave nga programi COVAX i Organizatës Botërore të Shëndetësisë.

Cili është efikasiteti i vaksinës?

Vaksina e Oxford/AstraZeneca ka 63.9 për qind efikasitet kundër sëmundjes COVID-19, sipas analizave preliminare, thotë Organizata Botërore e Shëndetësisë, e cila ka rekomanduar që kjo vaksinë të përdoret.

Kjo vaksinë administrohet me dy doza. OBSH-ja thotë se vaksina shfaq më shumë efikasitet kur intervali kohor nga doza e parë te doza e dytë është më i gjatë.

“Kjo, së bashku me gjetjen e niveleve më të larta të antitrupave kur rritet intervali në mes të administrimit të dy dozave, mbështet përfundimin se intervalet më të gjata ndërmjet dozave brenda intervalit 4-12 javë shoqërohen me efikasitet më të madh të vaksinës. Për shkak të këtyre gjetjeve, sa i përket efikasitetit të dy dozave dhe rritjes së imunogjentetit kur doza e parë dhe doza e dytë kanë interval më të gjatë kohor, OBSH-ja rekomandon që dozat të merren ndërmjet intervalit 8-12 javë”, thotë OBSH-ja.

Vaksina e Universitetit të Oxford-it dhe kompanisë farmaceutike britanike, AstraZeneca rekomandohet të merret nga mosha 18 vjeçe dhe sipër.

Sa i përket mundësisë që kjo vaksinë të përzihet me vaksina të tjera, pra një person të mund të marrë një dozë të AstraZenecas dhe dozën tjetër të ndonjë vaksine tjetër të zbuluar, OBSH-ja rekomandon që të mos bëhet një gjë e tillë dhe personat të marrin dy dozat e vaksinës nga i njëjti prodhues.

Sa i përket mundësisë së reaksioneve alergjike ndaj vaksinës, rekomandohet që Me kusht që një person, pas marrjes së dozës së parë ka reaksione alergjike, të mos e marrë dozën e dytë të së njëjtës vaksinë.

Megjithëkëtë, gjatë studimeve klinike, shkencëtarët thuhet se s’ kanë vërejtur që kjo vaksinë ka shkaktuar reaksione alergjike.

“Megjithatë, si të gjitha vaksinat, edhe vaksina e AstraZenecas duhet të administrohet nën mbikëqyren e punëtorëve shëndetësorë, të cilët mund të japin trajtimin e duhur mjekësor Me kusht që shfaqen reaksione alergjike”, thotë OBSH-ja, duke shtuar se si për çdo vaksinë tjetër, duhet që për 15 minuta të vëzhgohet personi që ka marrë vaksinën për ndonjë reaksion të mundshëm.nga TaboolaRekomanduarMund t’ju interesojnëJa çfare sugjerojnë mjekët për trajtimin e rrudhave dhe të fytyrësiuveniscare.comThese Beautiful Weather Girls Are Sure To Brighten Up Your DaySizzlfy[Photos] Waffle House Waitress Didn’t Know She Was Recorded While She Served This CostumerCar Novels

Vaksina dhe personat mbi 65 vjeç

Për shkak të numrit të vogël të pjesëmarrësve të moshës 65 vjeç apo më të moshuar, në provat klinike të kësaj vaksine, vlerësimi i efikasitetit të kësaj vaksine ndaj kësaj grupmoshe është i gjerë.

“Vlerësime më të sakta për efikasitetin për këtë grupmoshë pritet së shpejti, si nga provat që po zhvillohen, por edhe nga studimet mbi efikasitetin që po bëjnë shtetet që po e përdorin këtë vaksinë. Përgjigjet imunitare që janë shkaktuar nga vaksina te personat e moshuar, janë të dokumentuara mirë dhe janë të ngjashme si te grupmoshat e tjera. Kjo sugjeron që ka shumë gjasa që vaksina të jetë efektive edhe te personat e moshuar. Të dhënat e provave thonë se vaksina është e sigurt për këtë grupmoshë”, thuhet në vlerësimin e OBSH-së.

Qeveria e Francës më 2 mars tha se të moshuarit, me kushte para-ekzistuese të sëmundjeve, mund ta marrin vaksinën AstraZeneca kundër coronavirusit.

Deklarata paraqet një ndryshim qëndrimi për këtë çështje.

Në shkurt, Franca ka miratuar përdorimin e vaksinës AstraZeneca vetëm për njerëzit nën moshën 65-vjeçare, duke përmendur mungesën e të dhënave për njerëz më të moshuar.

Personat nën 18 vjeç

deri më tani, s’ ka të dhëna lidhur me efikasitetin dhe sigurinë që kjo vaksinë të përdoret te fëmijët apo adoleshentët nën moshën 18-vjeçare.

“Derisa të ketë të dhëna për këtë grupmoshë, vaksinimi i personave nën 18 vjeç s’ rekomandohet”, vlerëson OBSH-ja.

në atë kohë, sa i përket grave shtatzëna dhe atyre që ushqejnë fëmijët e tyre me gji, thuhet se ato janë në rrezik të madh që të sëmuren rëndë nga COVID-19, krahasuar me gratë që s’ janë shtatzëna. Po ashtu, COVID-19 është shoqëruar me rrezikun e lartë të lindjeve të parakohshme.

“Të dhënat aktuale mbi vaksinimin e grave shtatzëna me AstraZeneca janë të pamjaftueshme për të vlerësuar efikasitetin apo rreziqet që lidhen me vaksinimin gjatë shtatzënisë”, thotë OBSH-ja, duke shtuar se ngjashëm janë të dhënat edhe për gratë gjidhënëse dhe s’ dihet Me kusht që vaksina ndikon te qumështi.

Megjithatë, OBSH-ja thekson se vaksina e AstraZenecas është vaksinë që s’ shumëzohet, andaj thotë se me gjasë s’ paraqet rrezik te fëmijët që ushqehen me gji.

“Marrë parasysh këto, gratë gjidhënëse bëjnë pjesë në grupin që rekomandohet të vaksinohen. OBSH-ja s’ rekomandon ndërprerjen e ushqyerjes me gji të fëmijëve, pasi nënat të vaksinohen”, thuhet në rekomandim.

Sa i përket personave që janë me HIV, ata s’ kanë qenë të përfshirë në analizat preliminare të studimeve mbi efikasitetin dhe sigurinë e kësaj vaksine, andaj të dhënat për këtë grup shoqëror akoma s’ janë të qasshme.

Personat që e kanë kaluar COVID-19

Vaksinimi rekomandohet pavarësisht Me kusht që një person e ka kaluar coronavirusin e ri.

Por, personat që janë të konfirmuar si COVID-19 pozitivë, përfshirë ata që janë konfirmuar pozitivë pasi kanë marrë dozën e parë të vaksinës, s’ duhet të vaksinohen, pra të marrin dozën e dytë, derisa ta jenë shëruar nga sëmundja akute.

“Personat që janë të konfirmuar me COVID-19 mund ta shtyjnë vaksinimin deri në gjashtë muaj”, rekomandon OBSH.

Komisioni për vaksina në Gjermani tha më 4 mars se personat që e kanë kaluar sëmundjen COVID-19, duhet të marrin vetëm një dozë të vaksinës së prodhuar nga kompania britanike, AstraZeneca dhe Universiteti i Oxford-it.

Ky vendim pritet që mundësojë që më shumë njerëz të vaksinohen kundër coronavirusit, teksa shtetet po përballen me mungesë të dozave të vaksinave.

Variantet e reja të koronavirusit

Organizata Botërore e Shëndetësisë thotë se variantet e reja të coronavirusit janë akoma nën vlerësim. Disa variante të reja besohet se janë më ngjitëse, shkaktojnë sëmundje më të rëndë, ka rrezik më të lartë të riinfektimit apo shkaktojnë ndryshim në përbërjen antigjentike, duke rezultuar në efikasitet më të ulët të vaksinës.

Sipas të dhënave paraprake, sipas OBSH-së, vaksina AstraZeneca është më pak efektive ndaj variantit të shfaqur në Mbretëri të Bashkuar, që shoqërohet me uljen e prodhimit të antitrupave. në atë kohë, analizat e bëra për variantin e Afrikës së Jugut tregojnë se vaksina e AstraZenecas është më pak efektive ndaj sëmundjes së moderuar dhe të butë dhe po ashtu është vërejtur edhe rënia e antitrupave.

Për dallim nga vaksinat e kompanive Pfizer/BioNTech dhe Moderna, që kërkojnë të ruhen në temperatura ultra të ulëta, vaksina e AstraZenecas mund të ruhet në frigoriferë normal në temperaturë prej 2 deri në 8 gradë Celsius./REL/

Postime të ngjashme

Your top questions about Covid-19 and vaccines



How long will immunity last after getting a Covid-19 vaccine?

Vaccine transmission treatment & prevention work/life family

What are the side effects of the vaccines?

Some vaccine trial volunteers have reported feeling flu-like effects after getting the shots. Don’t freak out if this happens to you, health experts say.

“These are immune responses, so if you feel something after vaccination, you should expect to feel that,” said Patricia Stinchfield of Children’s Hospitals and Clinics of Minnesota.

“And when you do, it’s normal that you have some arm soreness or some fatigue or some body aches or even some fever,” Stinchfield said. Some people may feel bad enough to need to stay home from work for a day, she said.

The Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine has shown no serious safety concerns, Pfizer said. Pfizer has said side effects “such as fever, fatigue and chills” have been “generally mild to moderate” and lasted one to two days.

Moderna said its vaccine did not have any serious side effects. It said a small percentage of trial participants had symptoms such as body aches and headaches.

Work/life family treatment & prevention schools/education vaccine

When could I get a vaccine?

The answer can depend on your age, health, job and where you live.

High-priority groups such as health care workers, the elderly and people with underlying medical conditions have been the first to get vaccinated.

States will continue vaccinating more groups in the coming months. “And that will go into May, June, July,” said Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

What about young, healthy people? “We’re looking at probably middle of the summer, end of the summer before the average, healthy, young American has access to vaccination,” said Dr. Celine Gounder, an infectious disease specialist at New York University.

President Joe Biden said he hopes to have most Americans vaccinated by late summer or early fall.

This article gives a month-by-month breakdown of when certain Americans might get vaccinated.

Vaccine work/life family treatment & prevention schools/education

If I already had Covid-19, should I still get vaccinated?

“Yes. Due to the severe health risks associated with COVID-19 and the fact that reinfection with COVID-19 is possible, you should be vaccinated regardless of whether you already had COVID-19 infection,” the CDC says.

“Experts do not yet know how long someone is protected from getting sick again after recovering from COVID-19.”

In some cases, a vaccine might give stronger protection than antibodies produced after being infected, epidemiologist Dr. Larry Brilliant said.

“There are actually six other coronaviruses – MERS and SARS and four other viruses that create the common cold. They don’t seem to do very well at creating long-term immunity,” Brilliant said.

“Many of the vaccines that we’ve made in history are actually stronger than the virus is itself at creating immunity.”

The immunity you get from contracting Covid-19 does last for a certain amount of time, but the nature of the vaccine should provide longer immunity, CNN Chief Medical Correspondent Dr. Sanjay Gupta said.

It’s unclear how long that might be. Both the Pfizer-BioNTech and the Moderna vaccines come in two doses: the first dose primes the immune system, and the second dose acts like a booster. That makes it a better option for obtaining immunity, Gupta said.

Vaccine treatment & prevention work/life family schools/education transmission

How much does a Covid-19 vaccine cost?

The federal government has already purchased hundreds of millions of vaccine doses.

“Vaccine doses purchased with U.S. taxpayer dollars will be given to the American people at no cost,” the CDC says.

“However, vaccination providers can charge an administration fee for giving someone the shot. Vaccination providers can be reimbursed for this by the patient’s public or private insurance company or, for uninsured patients, by the Health Resources and Services Administration’s Provider Relief Fund.”

But no one can be denied a vaccine if they are unable to pay the vaccine administration fee, the CDC says.

Vaccine family work/life

This isolation is taking a toll on my mental health, and I’m feeling depressed and anxious about the pandemic. How can I get help?

The Crisis Text Line is available texting to 741741. Trained volunteers and crisis counselors are staffed 24/7, and the service is free.

The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Disaster Distress Helpline provides 24/7, 365-day-a-year crisis counseling and support to people experiencing emotional distress related to disasters. Call 1-800-985-5990 or text TalkWithUs to 66746 to connect with a trained crisis counselor.

For health care professionals and essential workers, For the Frontlines offers free 24/7 crisis counseling and support for workers dealing with stress, anxiety, fear or isolation related to coronavirus.

For more resources, check out CNN’s guide to giving and getting help during the pandemic.

Family Work/Life Treatment & Prevention schools/education

If vaccines prevent people from getting *sick* with coronavirus, can they also prevent people from *carrying* the virus and infecting others?

“So far, we can’t say for sure,” CNN Chief Medical Correspondent Dr. Sanjay Gupta said.

But Moderna says its vaccine may be able to prevent infection and transmission.

“Both the vaccines – both the Pfizer and the Moderna vaccines – have been shown to be efficacious and very safe in the clinical trials that have been conducted to date,” said Dr. Rick Bright, former head of the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority.

“What Moderna did … is they took some extra samples, or test swabs, from the subject in the clinical trial between the first and second dose of vaccine. Remember, they give you two doses, and after four weeks they get that second dose of vaccine,” Bright said.

“They looked at these samples, and they found out that more people who received the placebo dose got infected from the coronavirus than the people who get the vaccine dose. That means the first dose of vaccine actually could be offering some level of protection against infection – not just protection from severe illness,” he said.

“So if this plays out in a larger study, in a larger analysis, it could be very compelling to show that these vaccines could have impact over this protection of infection.”

Both Bright and the FDA said it’s not yet clear whether the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine prevents people from infecting others.

“Most vaccines that protect from viral illnesses also reduce transmission of the virus that causes the disease by those who are vaccinated,” the FDA said. “While it is hoped this will be the case, the scientific community does not yet know if the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine will reduce such transmission.”

Vaccine transmission treatment & prevention family work/life schools/education

Is it possible to get Covid-19 from the Covid-19 vaccine?

Vaccine treatment & prevention family transmission

Will Americans be required to get a Covid-19 vaccine? What happens if I don’t get vaccinated?

Dr. Anthony Fauci said he does not foresee a Covid-19 vaccine mandate in the United States.

But if you don’t get a vaccine, the consequences will extend far beyond yourself. Not only will you be more vulnerable to getting sick with Covid-19, but it could be harder to achieve herd immunity through vaccination.

In other words: Getting a vaccine is important to help slow this pandemic down or grind it to a halt. And that will help the country get back to normal, faster.

If only half of all Americans are willing to get vaccinated, Covid-19 could stick around for years, said Dr. Francis Collins, director of the National Institutes of Health.

Treatment & prevention family schools/education transmission travel work/life vaccine

Can people decide which vaccine to take?

Initially, there might not be a much of a choice.

Pfizer’s vaccine needs special, ultra-cold storage — much colder than normal freezers provide. So it might be available only if you live in an area where that type of facility is available.

The Moderna vaccine can be transported and stored at normal refrigeration temperatures. That could make it better suited for rural areas or places not close to ultra-cold storage.

But as the months go by, Americans might have more choice in what vaccine they get.

“The expectation is that by January, you may have the Johnson & Johnson vaccine, AstraZeneca vaccine applying for [emergency use authorization],” Gupta said.

“If this becomes a yearly shot, then people may have the option to choose.”

Vaccine family treatment & prevention

What are the long-term effects of coronavirus?

Some Covid-19 survivors have reported a variety of problems weeks or months after testing positive.

Even young adults have suffered long-lasting symptoms such as shortness of breath, chronic fatigue, brain fog, long-term fever, coughing, memory loss, and the inability to taste or smell.

One CDC study found 35% of survivors surveyed still had symptoms two to three weeks after their coronavirus tests:

  • In the 18-to-34 age group, 26% said they still had symptoms weeks later.
  • In the 35-to-49 age range, 32% were still grappling with the effects weeks later.
  • For those 50 and older, 47% said they still had symptoms weeks later.

And the risk of death from coronavirus-related heart damage seems to be far greater than previously thought, the American Heart Association said.

Inflammation of the vascular system and injury to the heart occur in 20% to 30% of hospitalized Covid-19 patients and contribute to 40% of deaths, the AHA said. AHA President Dr. Mitchell Elkind said cardiac complications of Covid-19 could linger after recovering from coronavirus.

Work/life family transmission

How effective are the vaccines?

Vaccine work/life treatment & prevention

Could I have the flu and coronavirus at the same time? If so, what does that do to your body?

“You can certainly get both the flu and Covid-19 at the same time, which could be catastrophic to your immune system,” said Dr. Adrian Burrowes, a family medicine physician in Florida.

In fact, getting infected with one can make you more vulnerable to getting sick with the other, epidemiologist Dr. Seema Yasmin said.

“Once you get infected with the flu and some other respiratory viruses, it weakens your body,” she said. “Your defenses go down, and it makes you vulnerable to getting a second infection on top of that.”

On their own, both Covid-19 and the flu can attack the lungs, potentially causing pneumonia, fluid in the lungs or respiratory failure, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said.

“The two (illnesses) together definitely could be more injurious to the lungs and cause more respiratory failure,” said Dr. Michael Matthay, a professor of medicine at the University of California, San Francisco.

And just like with Covid-19, even young, healthy people can die from the flu.

The good news is there are easy ways to help avoid a flu/Covid-19 double whammy: get a flu vaccine, stay 6 feet away from anyone outside your household, and wear a face mask anytime you might be in close contact with others.

The precautions you take against Covid-19 can “doubly protect us from both of those viruses,” Yasmin said.

transmission family work/life schools/education myths & misinformation

How can I tell if I have coronavirus or the flu (or both)?

Both the flu and Covid-19 can give you a fever, cough, shortness of breath, fatigue, sore throat, body aches and a runny or stuffy nose, the CDC said.

“Some people may have vomiting and diarrhea, though this is more common in children than adults,” the CDC said.

But unlike the flu, Covid-19 can cause a loss of taste or smell.

And about half of coronavirus transmissions happen before any symptoms show up. (Many of those people spreading the virus silently are pre-symptomatic and are more contagious before they start showing symptoms.)

So the best way to know if you have the novel coronavirus or the flu (or both) is to get tested. The CDC has created a test that will check for both viruses, to be used at CDC-supported public health labs.

Work/life family treatment & prevention schools/education myths & misinformation

What is aerosolized spread? What’s the difference between aerosols and droplets?

Aerosolized spread is the potential for coronavirus to spread not just by respiratory droplets, but by even smaller particles called aerosols that can float in the air longer than droplets and can spread farther than 6 feet.

Respiratory aerosols and droplets are released when someone talks, breaths, sings, sneezes or coughs. But the main difference is size.

Respiratory droplets are bigger – between 5 and 10 microns in diameter. (For perspective, a human hair is typically 60 to 120 microns wide.)

“If you have droplets that come out of a person, they generally go down within 6 feet,” said Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

But aerosols (aka droplet nuclei) are smaller – less than 5 microns in diameter, according to the World Health Organization.

“Aerosol means the droplets don’t drop immediately,” Fauci said. “They hang around for a period of time.”

This becomes “very relevant” when you are indoors and there is poor ventilation, he said.

There’s good enough data to say that aerosol transmission [of coronavirus] does occur,” Fauci said

Multiple case studies suggest coronavirus can spread well beyond 6 feet through airborne transmission, such as during choir practices, said Dr. Amy Compton-Phillips, chief clinical officer of Providence Health System.

In Washington state, for example, 53 members of a choir fell sick and two people died after one member attended rehearsals and later tested positive for Covid-19.

In July, 239 scientists backed a letter urging public health agencies to recognize the potential for aerosolized spread.

“There is significant potential for inhalation exposure to viruses in microscopic respiratory droplets (microdroplets) at short to medium distances (up to several meters, or room scale), and we are advocating for the use of preventive measures to mitigate this route of airborne transmission,” the letter said.

Fauci said there’s an easy way to help minimize the risk: “Wear the mask.”

The CDC says face masks should have two or more layers of breathable fabric.

transmission treatment & prevention family schools/education work/life travel

How long does immunity last if you recover from Covid-19? Are you immune for life?

Research is still evolving, but a recent study examining antibodies suggests you could be immune for months after infection.

“Although this cannot provide conclusive evidence that these antibody responses protect from reinfection, we believe it is very likely that they will decrease the odds ratio of reinfection,” researchers from Mount Sinai wrote.

“It is still unclear if infection with SARS-CoV-2 [the scientific name for the novel coronavirus] in humans protects from reinfection and for how long.”

There have been some reports of people getting infected twice within several months. Doctors said a 25-year-old Nevada man appeared to be the first documented case of Covid-19 reinfection in the US. He was first diagnosed in April, then recovered and tested negative twice, then tested positive again about a month later.

A separate team of researchers said a 33-year-old man living in Hong Kong had Covid-19 twice, in March and August.

And earlier this year, an 89-year-old Dutch woman – who also had a rare white blood cell cancer – died after catching Covid-19 twice, experts said. She became the first known person to die after getting reinfected.

work/life treatment & prevention schools/education myths & misinformation transmission

How long will we have to keep wearing masks?

For at least several more months, but not forever.

“It’s estimated that about 70% of Americans must be vaccinated before we get to herd immunity through vaccination. That’s the point where enough people have the immune protection that the virus won’t spread anymore,” said emergency medicine physician Dr. Leana Wen, a visiting professor at George Washington University Milken Institute School of Public Health.

“This means about 230 million Americans must receive the vaccine. It will take time to produce this many vaccines — and remember the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines are two-dose vaccines, so you need double the number of doses as people,” Wen said.

“Then the vaccine must be distributed and actually given to people. If all goes well, the best estimates are that it will be late spring or early summer for most Americans to receive the vaccine. At that point, we could probably see one another without masks — but not before.”

Schools/education work/life transmission treatment & prevention travel family

What “underlying conditions” put people at higher risk of bad outcomes with Covid-19?

More than 40% of US adults have at least one underlying condition that can put them at higher risk of severe complications, according to the CDC.

Those conditions include obesity, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart disease, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease, according to the CDC.

People who have cancer, an organ transplant, sickle cell anemia, poorly controlled HIV or any autoimmune disorder are also at higher risk.

Covid-19 patients with pre-existing conditions — regardless of their age — are 6 times more likely to hospitalized and 12 times more likely to die from the disease than those who had no pre-existing conditions, CNN Chief Medical Correspondent Dr. Sanjay Gupta said.

While young, healthy people are less likely to die from Covid-19, many are suffering long-term effects from the disease.

Treatment & prevention transmission family work/life

What are the guidelines for riding in a car with someone from another household?

People from different households riding in a car together should wear face masks, said Dr. Aaron Hamilton of the Cleveland Clinic.

“You should also wear one if you’re rolling down your window to interact with someone at a drive-thru or curbside pickup location,” Hamilton said.

It’s also smart to keep the windows open to help ventilate the car and add another layer of safety, said Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

Travel transmission treatment & prevention work/life family schools/education

What should I do if I’m wearing a mask but have to sneeze?

If there are tissues nearby, you can take your mask off and sneeze into the tissue before putting your mask back on, CNN Chief Medical Correspondent Dr. Sanjay Gupta said.

For kids in school — or anyone else who might have to wear a mask all day — keep a backup mask in a baggie in case the first mask gets dirty. You can put the dirty mask in the baggie.

It’s also a good idea to keep backup masks in your car in case of any mask accidents.

Transmission schools/education work/life treatment & prevention

Are coronavirus and Covid-19 the same thing? How did they get their names?

Coronavirus and Covid-19 are not the same thing, but sometimes the terms can be used interchangeably.

This “novel coronavirus” is novel because it just emerged in humans in late 2019. There have been six other coronaviruses known to infect humans, such as SARS (circa 2003) and MERS (circa 2012).

“Coronaviruses are named for the crown-like spikes on their surface,” or coronas, the CDC says. The scientific name for this novel coronavirus is SARS-CoV-2, which stands for “severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.”

Covid-19, however, is the disease caused by the novel coronavirus. The letters and numbers in “Covid-19” come from “Coronavirus disease 2019.”

Myths & misinformation schools/education

If a pregnant woman gets Covid-19, will her baby be infected? Can babies get coronavirus through breastfeeding?

Family transmission work/life treatment & prevention myths & misinformation

Can someone who died from coronavirus still have their organs donated?

That’s not recommended right now, according to the US Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network.

“This guidance may change as more becomes known about the course and treatment of COVID-19,” the network said.

“Donation and transplant clinicians should apply their medical judgment in instances where test results are pending at the time of organ offers.”

family transmission treatment & prevention

Should we clean our cell phones daily?

Yes, that’s a good idea because cell phones are basically “petri dishes in our pockets” when you think about how many surfaces you touch before touching your phone.

You should regularly disinfect your mobile phone anyway, with or without a coronavirus pandemic.

“There’s probably quite a lot of microorganisms on there, because you’re holding them against your skin, you are handling them all the time, and also you’re speaking into them,” said Mark Fielder, a professor of medical microbiology at Kingston University.

“And speaking does release droplets of water just in normal speech. So it’s likely that a range of microbes – including Covid-19, should you happen to be infected with that virus – might end up on your phone.”

Watch the best ways to disinfect your cell phone here.

Transmission work/life treatment & prevention family

Is it safe to go back to the gym?

There are definitely risks, but also steps you and the gym can take to help minimize the risks.

Coronavirus often spreads more easily indoors rather than outdoors — especially if you’re indoors for an extended period of time.

Researchers have also found that heavy breathing and singing can propel aerosolized viral particles farther and increase the risk of transmission.

During one fitness instructor workshop, about 30 participants with no symptoms trained intensely for four hours, according to research published by the CDC. Eight participants later tested positive, and more than 100 new cases of coronavirus were traced back to that fitness workshop.

To help mitigate the risk, many gyms are now limiting capacity. Some are providing members with disinfectant sprays to sanitize equipment.

While health experts have recommended staying 6 feet away from others, it’s smart to keep even more distance than that at the gym.

“With all the heavy breathing, you may even want to double the usual 6 feet to 12 feet, just to be safe,” CNN Chief Medical Correspondent Dr. Sanjay Gupta said.

Transmission work/life treatment & prevention

I tested positive for coronavirus weeks ago. How long are people contagious with Covid-19? Do I need to keep isolating or getting retested?

For symptomatic carriers: If it’s been at least 10 days since your symptoms started and at least 24 hours since you’ve had a fever (without the help of fever-reducing medication) and your other symptoms have improved, you can go ahead and stop isolating, the CDC says.

Patients with severe illness may have to keep isolating for up to 20 days after symptoms started.

(But it’s important to note symptoms typically don’t show up until several days after infection — and you can be more contagious during this pre-symptomatic time. Also, symptoms can last for weeks or months — including in young people.)

For asymptomatic carriers: People who tested positive but don’t have any symptoms can stop isolating 10 days after the first positive test – as long as they have not subsequently developed symptoms, the CDC says.

But 10 days is just a general guideline: “Because symptoms cannot be used to gauge where these individuals are in the course of their illness, it is possible that the duration of viral shedding could be longer or shorter than 10 days after their first positive test,” the CDC warned. With viral shedding, a person can infect others with the virus, even if they have no symptoms.

Asymptomatic carriers who have tested positive can also stop isolating if they get two negative test results from tests taken more than 24 hours apart. At that point, it’s very unlikely they are still contagious.

Work/life treatment & prevention family schools/education transmission

I heard you can get Covid-19 through your eyes. Should we wear goggles, too?

Doctors say wearing eye protection (in addition to face masks) could certainly help some people, but it’s not necessary for everyone.

Teachers who have younger students in the classroom are “likely to be in environments where children might pull down their masks, or not be very compliant with them,” epidemiologist Saskia Popescu said. “There is concern that you could get respiratory droplets in the eyes.”

If you’re a health care worker or taking care of someone at home who has coronavirus, it’s smart to wear eye protection, said Dr. Thomas Steinemann, clinical spokesperson for the American Academy of Ophthalmology.

(Note: Regular glasses or sunglasses aren’t enough, because they leave too many gaps around the eyes.)

But if you’re not in a high-risk situation — and you’re very strict about wearing face masks and staying 6 feet away from others – wearing goggles isn’t necessary.

While it’s still possible to get Covid-19 through the eyes, that scenario is less likely than getting it through your nose or mouth, Steinemann said.

He said if a significant number of people were getting coronavirus through their eyes, doctors would probably see more Covid-19 patients with conjunctivitis, also known as pink eye (though having pink eye doesn’t necessarily mean you have coronavirus).

Transmission work/life treatment & prevention schools/education myths & misinformation

Should people wear face shields instead of (or in addition to) face masks?

The CDC does not recommend using plastic face shields for everyday activities or as a substitute for face masks. There are a few exceptions, such as for those who are hearing-impaired and rely on lip-reading or those who have physical or mental health conditions that would be exacerbated by wearing a cloth face mask.

“Cloth face coverings are a critical preventive measure and are most essential in times when social distancing is difficult,” the CDC says.

Clinical and laboratory studies show cloth face coverings reduce the spray of droplets when worn over the nose and mouth – what the CDC refers to as “source control.” And many people are contagious even when they don’t have any symptoms and don’t know they’re infected.

Face shields worn in addition to masks can provide an added layer of protection and can also help people stop touching their faces. Workers who are around people for long periods of time, such as grocery store workers or hospital personnel, may want to wear face shields in addition to masks, to increase their protection.

If someone must use a face shield without a mask, the CDC says the shield “should wrap around the sides of the wearer’s face and extend to below the chin. Disposable face shields should only be worn for a single use. Reusable face shields should be cleaned and disinfected after each use.”

Transmission treatment & prevention work/life schools/education

Is it safe to go on vacation?

It depends on how careful you are.

While some parts of the country have more cases of Covid-19 than others, “I think even more important than where someone goes is what they do when they go there,” said Dr. Andrew Thomas, chief clinical officer at Ohio State University’s Wexner Medical Center.

“Much like even when you’re at home, if you are essentially controlling your environment, not going out into public places with large crowds, you’re wearing a face mask, you’re washing your hands, you can go on vacation safely,” he said.

“I think certainly flying on planes is a little less safe than driving,” Thomas said. “But it’s really what you do when you go there. If you’re going to bars and restaurants, not wearing a mask, going out with large crowds … you’re going to potentially come home with the virus.”

Travel family transmission treatment & prevention work/life

Doesn’t the flu kill more people than coronavirus?

Transmission family work/life myths & misinformation

Is it true that kids aren’t big spreaders of coronavirus? How much do children get Covid-19?

Schools/Education family transmission myths & misinformation

My kids don’t want to wear a mask. What should I do?

Children can be more reluctant because they’re more sensitive to new things than adults are, said Christopher Willard, a psychiatry lecturer at Harvard Medical School.

“There’s also the weird psychological aspect of not being able to see their own face or other people’s faces and facial expressions,” which can hinder their feelings of comfort or safety, he said.

To ease their mask fears, try buying or making masks with fun designs on them. Or have your child customize his or her own masks by drawing on them with markers.

You can also order children’s face masks with superheroes on them or show your kids photos of their favorite celebrities wearing masks.

It’s also important to set a good example by wearing a mask yourself. Show your children your own mask, and let them know that by wearing one, they’ll be just like Mom or Dad.

Schools/education family treatment & prevention work/life transmission

How do I prevent my glasses or sunglasses from fogging up when I wear a mask?

First, make sure the top of your mask fits snugly against your skin (to minimize vapor from your breath from going up toward your eyes). Then put your glasses over the snug-fitting top portion of your mask.

If that doesn’t do the trick, soap and water can create a barrier that prevents glasses from fogging up. Here’s how.

Work/life family schools/education treatment & prevention

Are cancer patients at higher risk of severe complications from Covid-19?

Yes. And the increased risk applies to cancer patients of all ages, the CDC says.

“Having cancer currently increases your risk of severe illness from COVID-19,” the CDC says. “At this time, it is not known whether having a history of cancer increases your risk.”

Researchers found that patients whose cancer was getting worse or spreading were more than five times more likely to die in a month if they caught Covid-19.

But there are steps cancer patients can take to stay as healthy as possible:

  • Make sure you have at least a 30-day supply of your medications.
  • Don’t delay any life-saving treatment or emergency care during this pandemic.
  • Talk with your healthcare provider about your individual level of risk based on your condition, your treatment, and the level of transmission in your community.
  • Don’t stop taking your medicines or alter your treatment plan without talking to your healthcare provider.
  • Call your healthcare provider if you think you may have been exposed to the novel coronavirus.
  • Read the CDC’s tips for preventing infections in cancer patients.

Family work/life transmission treatment & prevention

Can central air conditioning spread Covid-19 in public places?

Technically, it can, but HVAC (heating/ventilation/air conditioning) systems are not thought to be a significant factor in the spread of coronavirus.

Many modern air conditioning systems will either filter out or dilute the virus. Ventilation systems with highly effective filters are a key way to eliminate droplets from the air, said Harvard environmental health researcher Joseph Gardner Allen.

Filters are rated by a MERV system – their “minimum efficiency reporting value” that specifies their ability to trap tiny particles. The MERV ratings go from 1 to 20. The higher the number, the better the filtration.

HEPA filters have the highest MERV ratings, between 17 and 20. HEPA filters are used by hospitals to create sterile rooms for surgeries and to control infectious diseases. They’re able to remove 99.97% of dust, pollen, mold, bacteria and other airborne particles as small as 0.3 microns.

For context, this coronavirus is thought to be between 0.06 to 1.4 microns in size.

But “HEPA filtration is not always going to be feasible or practical,” Allen said. “But there are other filters that can do the job. What is recommended now by the standard setting body for HVAC is a MERV 13 filter.”

High-efficiency filters in the 13-to-16 MERV range are often used in hospitals, nursing homes, research labs and other places where filtration is important.

“If you’re an owner of a home, building or mall, you want to have someone to assess your system and install the largest MERV number filter the system can reliably handle without dropping the volume of air that runs through it,” advised Erin Bromage, an associate professor of biology at the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth.

“In addition, virtually all modern air conditioning systems in commercial buildings have a process called makeup air where they bring in air from outside and condition it and bring it inside,” Bromage said. “It’s worse in regards to energy, but the more outside air we bring in, the more dilution of the virus we have and then the safer you are.”

Transmission family work/life schools/education

What does asymptomatic mean?

Work/life transmission schools/education

How effective are different types of face masks? Which cloth masks work the best?

An N95 respirator provides the best protection. But throughout the pandemic, N95s have been in high demand and short supply.

As for other masks, different types have different levels of effectiveness, according to researchers at Florida Atlantic University.

They compared four types of face masks commonly used by the public: a stitched mask with two layers of fabric, a commercial cone mask, a folded handkerchief, and a bandana. Researchers tested each to see which would likely offer the most protection if someone coughed or sneezed.

— The stitched mask with two layers of fabric performed the best, with droplets traveling only 2.5 inches.

— With a cone-style mask, the droplets traveled about 8 inches.

— A folded handkerchief performed worse, with droplets traveling 1 foot, 3 inches.

— The bandana gave the least amount of protection of the cloth masks tested, with droplets traveling 3 feet.

— Still, any kind of cloth mask is better than none, the researchers found. Without any covering, droplets were able to travel 8 feet.

“People need to know that wearing masks can reduce transmission of the virus by as much as 50%, and those who refuse are putting their lives, their families, their friends, and their communities at risk,” said Dr. Christopher Murray, director of the University of Washington’s Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation.

Treatment & prevention transmission

Do I still need to quarantine for 14 days after returning from travel?

If you traveled internationally, the CDC says you should stay home for 14 days after returning home. During those 14 days, be sure to take these steps:

  1. Take your temperature with a thermometer twice a day and monitor for a fever. You can use this temperature log to monitor your temperature. And watch for coughing or trouble breathing.
  2. Stay home and avoid contact with others. Do not go to work or school.
  3. Do not use public transportation, taxis, or ride-share services.
  4. Keep your distance from others (about 6 feet or 2 meters).

If you traveled domestically, it depends on the state. Some state or local governments require those who have recently traveled to stay home for 14 days. Covid-19 cases and deaths have been reported in all 50 states, and the situation is constantly changing.

“Because travel increases your chances of getting infected and spreading COVID-19, staying home is the best way to protect yourself and others from getting sick,” the CDC says.

You can read the CDC’s full guide on how to protect yourself on different types of transportation here.

Travel transmission treatment & prevention work/life

What’s so different about coronavirus that made us shut down the economy? Why do we have to practice social distancing now, when we didn’t during the SARS and swine flu epidemics?

Unlike SARS and swine flu, the novel coronavirus is both highly contagious and especially deadly, CNN Chief Medical Correspondent Dr. Sanjay Gupta said.

“SARS was also a coronavirus, and it was a new virus at the time,” Gupta said. “In the end, we know that SARS ended up infecting 8,000 people around the world and causing around 800 deaths. So very high fatality rate, but it didn’t turn out to be very contagious.”

The swine flu, or H1N1, “was very contagious and infected some 60 million people in the United States alone within a year,” Gupta said. “But it was far less lethal than the flu even — like 1/3 as lethal as the flu.”

What makes the novel coronavirus different is that “this is both very contagious … and it appears to be far more lethal than the flu as well,” Gupta said. “So both those things, in combination I think, are why we’re taking this so seriously.”

Work/life transmission treatment & prevention

How can I volunteer to be vaccine trial participant?

Go to www.coronaviruspreventionnetwork.org to fill out a questionnaire.

Several of the questions are designed to assess how likely you are to become infected and sick with Covid-19, including your race, what kind of work you do and how many people you come into contact with on a daily basis.

Treatment & prevention transmission work/life vaccine

When are people with coronavirus most contagious?

“People can be contagious without symptoms. And in fact – a little bit strangely in this case — people tend to be the most contagious before they develop symptoms, if they’re going to develop symptoms,” CNN Chief Medical Correspondent Dr. Sanjay Gupta said.

“They call that the pre-symptomatic period. So people tend to have more virus at that point seemingly in their nose, in their mouth. This is even before they get sick. And they can be shedding that virus into the environment.”

Some people infected with coronavirus never get symptoms. But it’s easy for these asymptomatic carriers to infect others, said Anne Rimoin, an epidemiology professor at UCLA’s School of Public Health.

“When you speak, sometimes you’ll spit a little bit,” she said. “You’ll rub your nose. You’ll touch your mouth. You’ll rub your eyes. And then you’ll touch other surfaces, and then you will be spreading virus if you are infected and shedding asymptomatically.”

That’s why health officials suggests people wear face masks while in public and when it’s difficult to stay 6 feet away from others.

Transmission treatment & prevention myths & misinformation

Can you get Covid-19 through sex?

The odds of transmitting coronavirus through sex hasn’t been thoroughly studied, though it has been found to exist in men’s semen.

But we do know Covid-19 is a highly contagious respiratory illness that can spread via saliva, coughs, sneezes, talking or breathing — with or without symptoms of illness.

So three Harvard physicians examined the likelihood of getting or giving Covid-19 during sex and made several recommendations.

For partners who haven’t been isolating together, they should wear masks and avoid kissing, the authors write.

In addition to wearing masks, people who have sex with partners outside of their home should also shower before and after; avoid sex acts that involve the oral transmission of bodily fluids; clean up the area afterward with soap or alcohol wipes to reduce their likelihood of infection.

Transmission treatment & prevention family myths & misinformation

Is it true young people with coronavirus are also having blood clots and strokes?

Yes, some young adults have suffered strokes after getting coronavirus.

“The virus seems to be causing increased clotting in the large arteries, leading to severe stroke,” said Dr. Thomas Oxley, a neurosurgeon at Mount Sinai Health System in New York.

“Our report shows a seven-fold increase in incidence of sudden stroke in young patients during the past two weeks,” Oxley said in April. “Most of these patients have no past medical history and were at home with either mild symptoms (or in two cases, no symptoms) of Covid.”

Family work/life schools/education

Why has the guidance on wearing face masks changed so much?

work/life myths & misinformation transmission treatment & prevention

How can I stay safe in an elevator?

It’s best to take the stairs if you can. But if you can’t, emergency room physician Dr. Leana Wen offers several tips:

  • Wear a mask. Not only does wearing a mask reduce your risk of inhaling the virus — which can linger in the air for 8 minutes — it also helps reduce your chances of infecting others if you are an asymptomatic carrier.
  • Use a tissue to push the elevator buttons. If you don’t have a tissue, use your elbow, then wash or disinfect that area when you can.
  • Try to keep your distance from anyone else inside the elevator as much as possible.

transmission work/life treatment & prevention

How safe are public restrooms?

“If you don’t have to use the public restroom, don’t,” said microbiologist Ali Nouri, president of the Federation of American Scientists. But he acknowledged that’s not always possible: “Sometimes when you gotta go, you gotta go.”

Close contact with others is the most significant risk in a public restroom, Nouri said. So if there’s a single-person bathroom available that doesn’t have multiple stalls, using that might be best.

If you do use a multi-stall public restroom, Nouri offers the following tips:

  • Use paper towels to dry your hands, not the hand dryer. Air dryers can spread viral particles around the room. And paper towels have been shown to remove residual viral particles more effectively than air.
  • Don’t use your freshly washed hands to turn off the water with the germ-laden faucet handle. Instead, use a paper towel to turn off the water and open the bathroom door. Throw away the paper towel immediately afterward.
  • Wear a face mask. “Masks are one of the most effective ways to stop human-to-human transmission,” Nouri said. “If people in a public bathroom are not wearing masks, think twice before going in.”
  • If the restroom looks crowded, wait until it clears out, if you can. “You’re reducing the risk of inhaling aerosolized particles from other people,” Nouri said.

Transmission treatment & prevention work/life

Is hand sanitizer as effective as soap and water in killing coronavirus?

Yes — as long as you use the right kind of sanitizer and use it correctly.

Hand sanitizers “need to have at least 60% alcohol in them,” said Dr. William Schaffner, professor of preventative medicine and infectious disease at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine.

And don’t just put a little dollop in your hand and smear it around quickly.

“You’ve got to use enough and get it all over the surfaces,” Schaffner said. “Rub it all over your hands, between your fingers and on the back of your hands.”

But it’s always better to thoroughly wash your hands, if you’re able to.

“Alcohol is pretty effective at killing germs, but it doesn’t wash away stuff,” said Dr. John Williams, a virologist at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh.

“If somebody’s just sneezed into their hand, and their hand is covered with mucus, they would have to use a lot more alcohol to inactivate that bacteria or virus.”

Schools/education treatment & prevention work/life transmission family

Are some blood types able to fight coronavirus better than other blood types?

A study published in The New England Journal of Medicine found that people with Type A blood have a higher risk of getting infected with coronavirus and developing severe symptoms, while people with Type O blood have a lower risk – but the study has caveats.

The researchers cannot say if blood type is a direct cause of the differences in susceptibility. It could be that genetic changes that affect someone’s risk also just happen to be linked with blood type, they said.

The study’s findings, while plausible, may mean very little for the average person, said Dr. Roy Silverstein, a hematologist and chairman of the department of medicine at the Medical College of Wisconsin.

“The absolute difference in risk is very small,” he said. “The risk reduction may be statistically significant, but it is a small change in actual risk. You never would tell somebody who was Type O that they were at smaller risk of infection.”

The bottom line: “All of us are susceptible to this virus,” said Dr. Maria Van Kerkhove, technical lead for the World Health Organization’s Covid-19 response.

Treatment & prevention myths & misinformation

What’s the risk of having a maid service come to clean your house if you’re not home?

“It’s probably safe if you’re not at home,” said Dr. Leana Wen, an emergency room physician. She suggested leaving the windows open to improve ventilation and asking the cleaners to use your own cleaning supplies so they don’t bring items that have been in other people’s houses.

transmission work/life treatment & prevention family

Can I disinfect my mask by putting it in the microwave?

That’s “not a great idea,” said Dr. Joseph Vinetz, a professor of infectious diseases at Yale School of Medicine. “We have no evidence about that.”

“If there’s a metal piece in an N95 or surgical mask and even staples, you can’t microwave them,” he said. “It’ll blow up.”

Vinetz said cloth masks can be washed and reused, and even disposable masks can be reused if you let them sit for several days.

To disinfect masks that you can’t wash, Vinetz recommends leaving them in a clean, safe place in your home for a few days. After that, it should no longer be infectious, as this coronavirus is known to survive on hard surfaces for only up to three days.

treatment & prevention work/life myths & misinformation

Is it safe to perform CPR on a stranger?

Doctors strongly recommend performing CPR when someone needs it.

You could be hundreds of times more likely to save that dying person’s life than you are to die from Covid-19 if you contract it after performing CPR, according to a report published by a group of Seattle emergency room physicians in the journal Circulation.

But it’s important to act quickly for CPR to be effective.

“The chance of survival goes down by 10% for every minute without CPR,” said Dr. Comilla Sasson, vice president for science and innovation in emergency cardiovascular care at the American Heart Association. “It’s a 10-minute window to death in many cases.”

If you’re not certified in CPR, performing chest compressions could also buy more time until help arrives. Bystanders should “provide high-quality chest compressions by pushing hard and fast in the middle of the victim’s chest, with minimal interruptions,” the American Heart Association said.

If you’re not sure how “fast” to do to those chest compressions, singing any of these popular songs will help you get the right rhythm.

Transmission work/life family myths & misinformation

Can I get coronavirus from swimming in open water, like in a lake or seawater? What about in a public pool or hot tub?

It’s not the water you need to worry about. It’s how close you might get to other people.

“Properly maintained pool water will not be a source of spread of the virus. The chlorine that’s in it will inactivate the virus fairly quickly,” immunologist Erin Bromage said.

“The level of dilution that would happen in a pool or an ocean or a large freshwater body would not lead to enough virus to establish an infection. But when you do this, you need to just make sure that we’re maintaining an appropriate physical distance while swimming or sitting in a hot tub.”

That’s because it’s easy for infected people with no symptoms to spread the virus if they’re within 6 feet from each other. If you have an indoor pool or hot tub, even 6 feet might not be enough distance.

Transmission family travel treatment & prevention work/life

I see other countries spraying down sidewalks and other public places with disinfectant. Why don’t we do that in the US?

Randomly spraying open places is largely a waste of time, health experts say.

It can actually do more harm than good. “Spraying disinfectants can result in risks to the eyes, respiratory or skin irritation,” the World Health Organization said.

“Spraying or fumigation of outdoor spaces, such as streets or marketplaces, is also not recommended to kill the COVID-19 virus or other pathogens because disinfectant is inactivated by dirt and debris, and it is not feasible to manually clean and remove all organic matter from such spaces,” the WHO said.

“Moreover, spraying porous surfaces, such as sidewalks and unpaved walkways, would be even less effective.” Besides, the ground isn’t typically a source of infection, the WHO said.

And once the disinfectant wears off, an infected person could easily contaminate the surface again.

Treatment & prevention myths & misinformation travel transmission

Will protests increase the spread of Covid-19?

Transmission treatment & prevention work/life

Do vitamin D levels affect your risk for coronavirus? Is there a correlation between vitamin D and those who test positive for Covid-19?

“To date, there is no evidence that very high vitamin D levels are protective against COVID-19 and consequently medical guidance is that people should not be supplementing their vitamin D levels beyond those which are currently recommended by published medical advice,” wrote Robin May, director of the Institute of Microbiology and Infection at the University of Birmingham in the UK.

Vitamin D is important for healthy muscles, strong bones and a powerful immune system. The recommended daily dose of vitamin D for anyone over age 1 is 15 mcg/600 IU per day in the US. For anyone over 70 years of age in the US, the recommended daily intake goes up to 20 mcg/800 IU per day.

But too much vitamin D can lead to a toxic buildup of calcium in your blood that can cause confusion, disorientation, heart rhythm problems, bone pain, kidney damage and painful kidney stones.

Treatment & prevention myths & misinformation

Can you get coronavirus from touching money? What about from other objects, like plants?

“Viruses can live on surfaces and objects — including on money — although your chance of actually getting COVID-19 from cash is probably very low,” emergency medicine physician Dr. Leana Wen said.

The new coronavirus can live for up to 72 hours on stainless steel and plastic, up to 24 hours after landing on cardboard, and up to four hours after landing on copper, according to a study funded by the US National Institutes of Health.

So how do you protect yourself? To avoid touching cash or coins, use contactless methods of payment whenever possible, Wen said.

If you can’t use a contactless form of payment, credit cards and debit cards are much easier to clean and disinfect than cash. But remember that anyone who touches your credit card can also leave germs on it.

If you must use cash, “wash your hands well with soap and water” afterward, Wen said.

The same applies for anything else you touch that might have coronavirus on it. If you can’t wash your hands immediately, use hand sanitzier or disinfectant.

And since Covid-19 is a respiratory disease, make sure you avoid touching your face.

Transmission work/life treatment & prevention

Can you get coronavirus by touching a dead body or the ashes of someone who had Covid-19?

It appears unlikely, but the CDC advises taking precautions.

Experts believe coronavirus is mainly spread during close contact (about 6 feet) with a person who is currently infected, the CDC said.

“This type of spread is not a concern after death,” the CDC said. But it cautions that “we are still learning how it spreads.”

“There may be less of a chance of the virus spreading from certain types of touching, such as holding the hand or hugging after the body has been prepared for viewing,” the CDC said.

“Other activities, such as kissing, washing, and shrouding should be avoided before, during, and after the body has been prepared, if possible.”

If washing the body or shrouding are important religious or cultural practices, “families are encouraged to work with their community’s cultural and religious leaders and funeral home staff on how to reduce their exposure as much as possible,” the CDC said.

“At a minimum, people conducting these activities should wear disposable gloves. If splashing of fluids is expected, additional personal protective equipment (PPE) may be required (such as disposable gown, faceshield or goggles and N-95 respirator).”

Cremated remains can be considered sterile, as infectious agents do not survive incineration-range temperatures, the CDC said.

Myths & misinformation transmission family

Can UV light kill coronavirus?

While some UV light devices are used for hospital disinfection, UV light only kills germs under very specific conditions — including certain irradiation dosages and exposure times, the World Health Organization said.

But UV light can also damage the body.

Two factors are required for UV light to destroy a virus: intensity and time. If the light is intense enough to break apart a virus in a short time, it’s going to be dangerous to people, said Donald Milton, a professor at the University of Maryland.

UVA and UVB light both damage the skin. UVC light is safer for skin, but it will damage tender tissue such as the eyes.

Myths & misinformation treatment & prevention

Do I need to wash fruits and vegetables with soap and water?

No. The US Food and Drug Administration says you don’t need to wash fresh produce with soap and water, but you should rinse it with plain water.

But it’s still important to wash your hands with soap and water frequently because we often touch our faces without realizing it. And that’s a very easy way for coronavirus to spread.

You don’t have to worry about getting coronavirus by “eating” it, though. Even if coronavirus does get into your food, your stomach acid would kill it, said Dr. Angela Rasmussen, a virologist at Columbia University.

Treatment & prevention work/life transmission

Can coronavirus stay in my hair or in a beard? Should I wash my hair every day?

Coronavirus can stick to hair, said Dr. David Aronoff, director of the Division of Infectious Diseases at Vanderbilt University Medical Center.

Touching contaminated hair and then touching your mouth, eyes or nose could increase your risk of infection. “Like on the skin, this coronavirus is a transient hitchhiker that can be removed by washing,” Aronoff said.

But that doesn’t mean you have to wash the hair on your head multiple times a day, said dermatologist Dr. Hadley King.

That’s because “living hair attached to our scalps may be better protected by our natural oils that have some antimicrobial properties and may limit how well microbes can attach to the hair,” she said.

“If you are going out into areas that could possibly be contaminated with viral particles, then it would be reasonable to wash the hair daily during the pandemic. But it’s not the same as hand washing – the virus infects us through our mucosal surfaces. If your hair is not falling into your face or you’re not running your fingers through it, then there is less of a risk.”

If your hair does fall into your face, you may want to pull it back to minimize your risk, King said.

As for facial hair, “washing at least daily if not more frequently is wise, depending on how often they touch their face,” Aronoff said.

Transmission treatment & prevention work/life

Could I infect my pets with coronavirus, or vice versa? Can someone get infected by touching an animal’s fur? Should I get my pet tested for coronavirus?

There have been some reports of animals infected with coronavirus — including two pets in New York and eight big cats at the Bronx Zoo.

Most of those infections came from contact with humans who had coronavirus, like a zoo employee who was an asymptomatic carrier.

But according to the CDC, there is no evidence animals play a significant role in spreading the virus to humans. Therefore, at this time, routine testing of animals for Covid-19 is not recommended.

As always, it’s best to wash your hands after touching an animal’s fur and before touching your face. And if your pet appears to be sick, call your veterinarian.

Family work/life treatment & prevention transmission

Should I wash my hands and laundry in very warm or hot water?

Hot water is best for killing bacteria and viruses in your laundry. But you don’t want to use that kind of scalding hot water on your skin.

Warm water is perfectly fine for washing your hands — as long as you wash them thoroughly (like this) and for at least 20 seconds. (To time yourself, you can hum the “Happy Birthday” song twice or sing a couple of verses from any of these hit songs from the past several decades.)

Cold water will also work, “but you have to make sure you work really vigorously to get a lather and get everything soapy and bubbly,” said chemist Bill Wuest, an associate professor at Emory University. To do that, you might need to sing “Happy Birthday” three times instead of twice.

“Warm water with soap gets a much better lather – more bubbles,” Wuest said. “It’s an indication that the soap is … trying to encapsulate the dirt and the bacteria and the viruses in them.”

Treatment & prevention work/life transmission myths & misinformation

How does soap kill coronavirus? If I don’t have disinfecting wipes, can I use soap and water on surfaces?

Yes, you can use soap and water on surfaces just like you would on your hands to kill coronavirus. But don’t use water alone — that won’t really help.

The outer layer of the virus is made up of lipids, aka fat. Your goal is to break through that fatty barrier, forcing the virus’ guts to spill out and rendering it dead.

In other words, imagine coronavirus is a butter dish that you’re trying to clean.

“You try to wash your butter dish with water alone, but that butter is not coming off the dish,” said Dr. John Williams, chief of pediatric infectious diseases at UPMC Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh.

“You need some soap to dissolve grease. So soap or alcohol are very, very effective against dissolving that greasy liquid coating of the virus.”

By cutting through the greasy barrier, Williams said, “it physically inactivates the virus so it can’t bind to and enter human cells anymore.”

Work/life transmission treatment & prevention schools/education

Can coronavirus be transferred by people’s shoes? How do I protect kids who crawl or play on the floor?

Yes, coronavirus can live on the soles of shoes, but the risk of getting Covid-19 from shoes appears to be low.

A report published by the CDC highlighted a study from a hospital in Wuhan, China, where this coronavirus outbreak began.

The soles of medical workers’ shoes were swabbed and analyzed, and the study found that the virus was “widely distributed” on floors, computer mice, trash cans and door knobs. But it’s important to note the study was done in a hospital, where the virus was concentrated.

It’s still possible to pick up coronavirus on the bottoms of your shoes by running errands, but it’s unlikely you’ll get sick from it because people don’t often touch the soles of their shoes and then their faces. Because Covid-19 is a respiratory disease, the CDC advises wearing a mask while in public and washing your hands frequently– the correct way.

If you have small children who crawl or regularly touch the floor, it’s a good idea to take your shoes off as soon you get home to prevent coronavirus or bacteria from spreading on the floors.

transmission family treatment & prevention schools/education

Can I get coronavirus through food? Is it safe to eat takeout from restaurants?

There’s no evidence that coronavirus can be transmitted through food, the CDC says.

Even if coronavirus does get into your food, your stomach acid would kill it, said Dr. Angela Rasmussen, a virologist at Columbia University.

“When you eat any kind of food, whether it be hot or cold, that food is going to go straight down into your stomach, where there’s a high acidity, low-pH environment that will inactivate the virus,” she said.

But it’s a good idea to disinfect the takeout containers, CNN Chief Medical Correspondent Dr. Sanjay Gupta said. Coronavirus is a respiratory virus, and it’s easy to touch your face without realizing it.

If you don’t have disinfecting wipes, use your own plates or bowls to serve the food. Just make sure to wash your hands after transferring food from the containers.

transmission family work/life

What’s convalescent plasma therapy? Do plasma donors and their recipients have to have the same blood type for this treatment?

Convalescent plasma is the liquid part of blood from patients who have recovered from an infection, the US Food and Drug Administration says. “Antibodies present in convalescent plasma are proteins that might help fight the infection.”

But just like normal blood donation, donors and recipients must be matched by blood type. Type AB plasma is the only universal type and can be given to patients of any blood type.

The FDA said patients who are fully recovered from Covid-19 for at least two weeks are encouraged to consider donating plasma.

The Red Cross said there are other requirements for plasma donors:

  1. You are at least 17 years old and weigh at least 110 pounds. (The age requirement may differ according to organization and state). Other weight requirements apply for donors age 18 or younger.
  2. You must be in good health overall health now.

You cannot donate if you are pregnant or have certain conditions, such as HIV or sickle cell disease.

Anyone interested in donating can fill out a form on the Red Cross website here.

Treatment & prevention

Can coronavirus spread through water, like in a swimming pool or hot tub?

“There is no evidence that COVID-19 can be spread to humans through the use of pools and hot tubs,” the CDC says.

“Proper operation, maintenance, and disinfection (e.g., with chlorine and bromine) of pools and hot tubs should remove or inactivate the virus that causes COVID-19.”

But health officials still advise staying at least 6 feet away from others because COVID-19 is a respiratory disease. In other words, you probably won’t get coronavirus from the water, but you could get coronavirus from someone close to you in the water.

As for drinking water, doctors say you don’t need to worry about coronavirus in the tap water because most municipal drinking water systems should remove or inactivate the virus.

Transmission work/life

Can mosquitoes or houseflies transmit coronavirus?

“To date there has been no information nor evidence to suggest that the new coronavirus could be transmitted by mosquitoes,” the World Health Organization says. There’s also no evidence so far suggesting flies can spread coronavirus.

Transmission myths & misinformation

Can you safely reuse a non-cloth mask that you can’t wash, like a disposable mask?

Work/life treatment & prevention

Will ingesting or injecting disinfectants, like the ones that kill viruses on surfaces, protect me against coronavirus or kill coronavirus if I already have it?

Myths & misinformation treatment & prevention work/life

What can we learn from how other countries handled coronavirus?

Singapore was initially praised for its clampdown on the virus. Even people who had no symptoms but tested positive had to be hospitalized until they tested negative.

But Singapore was also relaxed, allowing businesses, churches, restaurants and schools to stay open during its first wave of the virus. And some communities were overlooked by government testing.

The number of cases in Singapore shot up, and the country suffered a strong second wave of coronavirus.

By contrast, Germany, South Korea, Iceland and Taiwan have had among the lowest death rates from Covid-19 in the world.

Taiwan was proactive, launching its Central Epidemic Command Center before the island even confirmed its first infection.

Iceland required all its citizens returning to the country to undergo 14 days of quarantine – regardless of which country they traveled from.

Germany and South Korea quickly launched widespread testing and have some of the highest per-capita testing rates in the world. Their ability to identify and isolate those infected has helped prevent deadlier outcomes.

Work/life treatment & prevention

Can coronavirus stick to clothes? Do I need to wash my clothes right after encountering other people, like at the grocery store or while jogging?

“I don’t think you need to,” CNN Chief Medical Correspondent Dr. Sanjay Gupta said.

Coronavirus can stay alive for up to three days on stainless steel and plastic. But clothing “is probably more like cardboard — it’s more absorbent, so the virus is unlikely to stay and last that long,” Gupta said.

While coronavirus can stay alive on cardboard for up to 24 hours, viruses generally don’t stick well on surfaces that are in motion.

“If you look at how viruses move through air, they kind of want to move around objects,” Gupta said. “They don’t want to necessarily land on objects. So if you’re moving as human body through the air … (it’s) unlikely to stick to your clothes.”

Transmission work/life family treatment & prevention

Will an antibody test show whether I’m immune and can go back to work or school?

Work/life treatment & prevention transmission schools/education

Can I use vodka as hand sanitizer?

Please don’t. The CDC advises using hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol.

Vodka typically contains between 35% and 46% percent alcohol.

If the stores are out of hand sanitizer and you want to make your own, the Nebraska Medical Center offers this recipe:

What you’ll need:

  • 2/3 cup 91% isopropyl alcohol (rubbing alcohol)
  • 1/3 cup aloe vera gel
  • Mixing bowl
  • Spoon or something for whisking
  • Small container, such as a 3-oz. travel bottle
  • Optional: essential oil to give your hand sanitizer a fragrance

Directions:
In a mixing bowl, stir isopropyl alcohol and aloe vera gel together until well blended.
Add 8-10 drops of scented essential oil (optional, but nice). Stir.
Pour the homemade hand sanitizer into an empty container and seal. Write “hand sanitizer” on a piece of masking tape and attach to the bottle.

Myths & misinformation treatment & prevention

Are smokers or vapers at higher risk? What if I only smoke weed?

This is not a good time to be vaping or smoking anything, including weed.

“Vaping affects your lungs at every level. It affects the immune function in your nasal cavity by affecting cilia, which push foreign things out,” said Prof. Stanton Glantz, director of the Center for Tobacco Research Control and Education at University of California San Francisco.

When you vape, “the ability of your upper airways to clear viruses is compromised,” Glantz said.

Tobacco smokers are at especially high risk. In a study from China, where the first Covid-19 outbreak occurred, smokers were 14 times more likely to develop severe complications than non-smokers.

Even occasionally smoking marijuana can put you at greater risk.

“What happens to your airways when you smoke cannabis is that it causes some degree of inflammation, very similar to bronchitis, very similar to the type of inflammation that cigarette smoking can cause,” said pulmonologist Dr. Albert Rizzo, chief medical officer for the American Lung Association.

“Now you have some airway inflammation, and you get an infection on top of it. So yes, your chance of getting more complications is there.”

Work/life family treatment & prevention

My teenagers aren’t taking this seriously. Any advice?

Coronavirus isn’t just infecting young people. It’s killing young, healthy people as well.

We’ve reported many stories about young people getting severely sick with or dying from coronavirus.

Dimitri Mitchell, 18, admits he had a “false sense of security.” But he was later hospitalized with coronavirus and now wants everyone to take it seriously.

“I just want to make sure everybody knows that no matter what their age is, it can seriously affect them. And it can seriously mess them up, like it messed me up,” the Iowa teen said.

He started feeling sick with just a small cough. “I thought at first it was just a normal cold. And then it started progressively getting worse,” he said.

“Four days in, the really bad symptoms started coming along. I started having really bad outbreaks, like sweating, and my eyes were really watery. I was getting warmer and warmer, and I was super fatigued. … I would start experiencing the worst headaches I’ve ever felt in my life. They were absolutely horrible.”

Eventually, the teen had to be hospitalized. His mother said she worried he might “fall asleep and never wake up.”

Mitchell is now recovering, but has suffered from long-term effects.

“I just hope everybody’s responsible, because it’s nothing to joke about,” he said. “It’s a real problem, and I want everybody to make sure they’re following social distancing guidelines and the group limits. And just listen to all the rules and precautions and stay up to date with the news and make sure they’re informed.”

Family transmission treatment & prevention myths & misinformation schools/education

Does this pandemic have anything to do with the 5G network?

No. That’s just a hoax going around the internet.

“The theory that 5G might compromise the immune system and thus enable people to get sick from corona is based on nothing,” said Eric van Rongen, chairman of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP).

Learn more about how 5G really works and why this hoax makes no sense.

Myths & misinformation

My ex and I have joint custody of our kids. Is it safe for them to go between two homes?

Ideally, you should limit your children’s potential exposures to coronavirus and work out the safest plan possible with your ex.

The problem: Some state and county family courts might be closed, or open only for emergencies involving abuse or endangerment. So it might be difficult to formally modify pre-existing custody agreements.

But some states may be offering some flexibility during the pandemic. And there may be creative solutions, such as spending more time with one parent now in exchange for extra time with the other parent after the pandemic ends.

Family work/life travel

How long does coronavirus stay “alive” on surfaces?

Up to three days, depending on the surface. According to a study funded by the US National Institutes of Health:

  • The novel coronavirus is viable up to 72 hours after being placed on stainless steel and plastic.
  • It was viable up to four hours after being placed on copper, and up to 24 hours after being put on cardboard.
  • In aerosols, it was viable for three hours.

Transmission

Will a pneumonia or flu vaccine help protect against coronavirus?

Transmission myths & misinformation treatment & prevention vaccine

Should I wear a face mask in public? If so, how do I make one?

transmission work/life myths & misinformation

Why is it so difficult to make a drug to cure coronavirus?

An antiviral drug must be able to target the specific part of a virus’ life cycle that is necessary for it to reproduce, according to Harvard Medical School.

“In addition, an antiviral drug must be able to kill a virus without killing the human cell it occupies. And viruses are highly adaptive.”

Treatment & Prevention

Why are medical workers getting sick with or dying from coronavirus if they’re wearing protective gear? Does the viral load matter?

Many health care workers havent had enough protective gear to handle the growing influx of coronavirus patients.

Some have resorted to using plastic report covers as masks. The CDC said medical providers might have to use expired masks or reuse them between multiple patients. (This shortage is why the general public should not buy medical masks and instead make cloth masks at home.)

But it’s not just subpar protective gear that puts medical workers at risk. It’s also the amount of virus they’re exposed to.

“The viral load — the amount of virus – does determine the severity of your illness,” emergency medicine physician Dr. Leana Wen said. “So that could happen in the case of health care workers who are exposed to a lot more Covid-19 as a result of their work — that they get more severely ill.”

Transmission

How many people with coronavirus don’t have symptoms? Are they still contagious?

In one study, about 4 in 5 people with confirmed coronavirus in China were likely infected by people who didn’t know they had it, according to research published in the journal “Science.”

“These findings explain the rapid geographic spread of (coronavirus) and indicate containment of this virus will be particularly challenging,” researchers wrote.

In mid-March, the CDC said almost half of the 712 people with coronavirus who were on the Diamond Princess cruise ship didn’t have any symptoms when they tested positive.

Other studies suggest 25% to 50% of coronavirus carriers don’t have symptoms.

In the US, “I think it could be as many as 1 in 3 walking around asymptomatic,” said New Jersey primary care physician Dr. Alex Salerno.

“We have tested some patients that have known exposure to COVID (coronavirus disease). They did not have temperature. Their pulse/(oxygen) was OK.”

Salerno said more testing of people without symptoms is essential.

When asymptomatic carriers test positive, “we isolate them, and we separate them from the people who are not positive,” Salerno said. If more asymptomatic people got tested, “we could get people back to work safely.”

Transmission myths & misinformation work/life

If there’s no cure, why go to the hospital unless you have a breathing problem?

Most coronavirus patients don’t need to be hospitalized. “The vast majority of people – about 80% – will do well without any specific intervention,” said Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

Those patients should get plenty of rest, hydrate frequently and take fever-reducing medication.

“The current guidance – and this may change – is that if you have symptoms that are similar to the cold and the flu and these are mild symptoms to moderate symptoms, stay at home and try to manage them,” said Dr. Patrice Harris, president of the American Medical Association.

But about 20% of coronavirus patients get advanced disease. “Older patients and individuals who have underlying medical conditions or are immunocompromised should contact their physician early in the course of even mild illness,” the CDC says.

The CDC also says you should get immediate help if you have:

  • Trouble breathing
  • Persistent pain or pressure in the chest
  • Sudden confusion
  • Bluish lips or face

“This list is not all inclusive,” the CDC says. “Please consult your medical provider for any other symptoms that are severe or concerning.”

Treatment & prevention family

Why are people stocking up on bottled water? Is the water supply at risk?

No, the water supply is not at risk.

“The COVID-19 virus has not been detected in drinking water,” the CDC says. “Conventional water treatment methods that use filtration and disinfection, such as those in most municipal drinking water systems, should remove or inactivate the virus that causes COVID-19.”

So there’s no need to hoard drinking water, said Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Fauci said he and his wife are still drinking tap water.

Work/life myths & misinformation

We need a babysitter. How do I keep my family safe with someone new in the house?

The Harvard Medical School offers several tips, including:

  • choosing a babysitter who has minimal exposures to other people besides your family
  • limiting the number of babysitters. If you can keep it to one, that’s ideal. But if you need multple babysitters, keep the number as low as possible
  • making sure the babysitter understands he or she needs to practice social distancing and limits physical interaction with your children as much as possible
  • telling the babysitter that he or she must not come to your house if feeling even the slightest bit sick, or has had known exposure to coronavirus
  • making sure everyone washes their hands frequently throughout the day, especially before eating.

Work/life family

How do I safely take care of someone who’s sick?

It may be difficult to know whether your loved one has coronavirus or another illness.
So it’s critical to play it safe and not infect yourself and, in turn, others. The CDC suggests:

  • Giving the sick person their own room to stay in, if possible. Keep the door closed.
  • Having only one person serve as the caretaker.
  • Asking the sick person to wear a face mask, if they are able to. If the mask causes breathing difficulties, then the caretaker should wear a mask instead.

Transmission family

What are the symptoms?

Fever, dry cough and difficulty breathing are hallmarks of coronavirus.

Symptoms may appear anywhere from 2 days to 2 weeks after exposure, the CDC says. But some people get no symptoms at all and can infect others without knowing it.

The illness varies in its severity. And while many people can recover at home just fine, some people — including young, previously healthy adults — are suffering long-term symptoms.

transmission

What can I do if my loved one thinks he or she has coronavirus?

Don’t visit family members with suspected illness – connect with them virtually.
If that person lives with you, limit contact with them and avoid using the same bathroom or bedroom if possible, the CDC advises.

If the person been diagnosed, he or she might be able to recover at home in isolation. Separate yourself as much as possible from your infected family member and keep animals away, too. Continue to use separate restrooms and regularly disinfect them.

Stock up on groceries and household supplies for them while they can’t travel outside and minimize trips to stores. Wash your hands frequently and avoid sharing personal items with the infected person.

If you think you’re developing symptoms, stay home and call your physician.

family

Should I disinfect my groceries? If so, how?

“I would suggest wiping down external surfaces of canned or wrapped foods,” said Dr. Celine Gounder, an infectious disease specialist at Bellevue Hospital Center.

“You should be washing your vegetables (and) produce anyway,” she said. “But I think making sure you sanitize your hands, wash your hands after you do all that – after you unpack all your groceries – is also a key step.”

Work/life

The stores are all out of disinfectant sprays and hand sanitizer. Can I make my own?

Yes, you can make both at home.

“Unexpired household bleach will be effective against coronaviruses when properly diluted” if you’re trying to kill coronavirus on a non-porous surface, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said.

The CDC’s recipe calls for diluting 5 tablespoons (or ⅓ cup) of bleach per gallon of water, or 4 teaspoons of bleach per quart of water.

You can also make your own hand sanitizer. The Nebraska Medical Center – famous for its biocontainment unit and treatment of Ebola patients – offers this recipe:

What you’ll need:

  • 2/3 cup 91% isopropyl alcohol (rubbing alcohol)
  • 1/3 cup aloe vera gel
  • Mixing bowl
  • Spoon or something for whisking
  • Small container, such as a 3 oz. travel bottle
  • Optional: essential oil to give your hand sanitizer a fragrance

Directions:
In a mixing bowl, stir isopropyl alcohol and aloe vera gel together until well blended.
Add 8-10 drops of scented essential oil (optional, but nice). Stir.
Pour the homemade hand sanitizer into an empty container and seal.
Write “hand sanitizer” on a piece of masking tape and attach to the bottle.

Work/life Treatment & Prevention

Should I stock up on extra food and supplies?

Yes, because a family member may suddenly have to quarantine. Just don’t hoard more than you need because other people need supplies, too.

Harvard Medical School recommends keeping a two-week to 30-day supply of nonperishable food at home. And if you don’t use them now, they may come in handy for power outages or extreme weather.

It’s also a good idea to keep at least a 30-day supply of prescription medications you may need, though it can be difficult to get them early. Consider mail-ordering medications.

Work/life

Should I avoid public transportation?

If you rely on public transportation, use caution. If you’re sick or live in an area where an outbreak has been reported, avoid it.

Mass transit could increase your risk of exposure to coronavirus. Luckily, transit systems are upping their cleaning regimens — notably the New York subway system.

Dr. Robyn Gershon, a professor of epidemiology at New York University’s School of Public Health, has some tips: When you ride a bus or subway, sneeze or cough into your elbow. Use a tissue to hold onto a pole. Avoid touching your face while you’re riding, and use hand sanitizer if you have it while you’re commuting.

Again, wash your hands before, during and after your trip.

New York Gov. Andrew Cuomo recommends letting crowded trains or buses pass and waiting for a less crowded one. It’s nearly impossible to maintain 6 feet of distance on a packed subway car.

If you have a chronic illness, find alternative means of transportation — being in a crowded subway car or bus will significantly increase your risk of infection.

Work/life travel

Can I be fired if I stay home sick?

An employee can be fired if they don’t show up to work and don’t have sick leave that would cover the absence, says Krista Slosburg, an employment attorney at Stokes Lawrence in Seattle.

But there are exceptions. Employers who make workers with Covid-19 come in may be violating Occupational Safety and Health Administration [OSHA] regulations, said Donna Ballman, who heads an employee advocacy law firm in Florida.

Work/Life

What happens when workers don’t get paid sick leave?

If you work in a city or state that requires sick leave and you use it, you can‘t be terminated or disciplined.

But there is no federal mandate that requires companies to offer paid sick leave, and almost a quarter of all US workers don’t get it, according to 2019 government data. Some state and local governments have passed laws that require companies to offer paid sick leave.

The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) can sometimes protect a worker’s job in the event they get sick, but it won’t guarantee they get paid while they’re out.

Employee advocates urge businesses to consider the special circumstances of the Covid-19, and some already have

Work/Life

Can managers send a sick worker home?

Yes, managers can.

The Society for Human Resource Management recommends companies “actively encourage sick employees to stay home, send symptomatic employees home until they are able to return to work safely, and require employees returning from high-risk areas to telework during the incubation period [of 14 days].”

If a manager feels an employee’s illness poses a direct threat to colleagues’ safety, the manager may be able to insist the employee be evaluated by a doctor, said Alka Ramchandani-Raj, an attorney specializing in workplace safety.

Work/Life

If traveling on a plane, how do I stay safe?

Since Covid-19 is a respiratory disease, some airlines are now requiring passengers to wear face masks during the flight, except for while eating or drinking.

Health experts suggest eating, drinking and using the restroom before getting on the plane, to eliminate the need to take off your mask or go into a cramped lavatory on board.

And always be mindful of where your hands have been, travel medicine specialist Dr. Richard Dawood said.

Airport handrails, door handles and airplane lavatory levers are notoriously dirty.

“It is OK to touch these things as long as you then wash or sanitize your hands before contaminating your face, touching or handling food,” Dawood said.

“Hand sanitizers are great. So are antiseptic hand wipes, which you can also use to wipe down armrests, remote controls at your seat and your tray table.”

Travel family work/life

Since a plane’s cabin keeps circulating air, will I get sick if another passenger is sick?

Most viruses don’t spread easily on airplanes because of how the air circulates and is filtered, the CDC says.

Modern commercial jets recirculate 10-50% of the air in the cabin, mixed with outside air.
“The recirculated air passes through a series of filters 20-30 times per hour,” the CDC says.

“Furthermore, air generally circulates in defined areas within the aircraft, thus limiting the radius of distribution of pathogens spread by small-particle aerosols. As a result, the cabin air environment is not conducive to the spread of most infectious diseases.”

Travel work/life

If I have a weakened immune system, should I cancel my travel plans?

People who are immunocompromised “are at higher risk from this illness, as well as other illnesses like the flu. Avoiding contact with ill people is crucial,” Washington state’s Snohomish Health District said.

“While rates of infection may not differ significantly between healthy and immunocompromised travelers, the latter are at greater risk for severe disease,” according to researchers from the Washington University School of Medicine.

Travel

What do I do if I think I’m sick?

Stay home. Call your doctor to talk about your symptoms and let them know you’re coming for an appointment so they can prepare for your visit, the CDC says.

Only a Covid-19 test can diagnose you with coronavirus, but if you suspect you have it, isolate yourself at home.

Many patients with coronavirus are able to recover at home. If you’ve been diagnosed and your illness is worsening, seek medical attention promptly. You may need to be monitored in a hospital.

Treatment & Prevention

What’s the best way to prevent getting infected?

Stay at least 6 feet away from others, wear a face mask when in public or when you’re close to people who don’t live with you, wash your hands often, and stop touching your face. Stay home as much as possible and limit your contact with people.

The best way to kill germs is by scrubbing your hands with soap and water for 20 seconds. Do this frequently before, during and after you visit a public place or have contact with people.

When soap isn’t available, use a hand sanitizer. Rub the sanitizer around your hands until it’s dry.

Treatment & Prevention

Should I spray myself or my kids with disinfectant?

No. Those products work on surfaces but can be dangerous to your body.

There are some chemical disinfectants, including bleach, 75% ethanol, peracetic acid and chloroform, that may kill the virus on surfaces.

But if the virus is already in your body, putting those substances on your skin or under your nose won’t kill it, the World Health Organization says. And those chemicals can harm you.

Treatment & Prevention myths & misinformation

I’ve heard that home remedies can cure or prevent the virus. Is that true?

There’s no evidence from the outbreak that eating garlic, sipping water every 15 minutes or taking vitamin C will protect people from the new coronavirus. Same goes for using essential oils or colloidal silver.

Treatment & prevention myths & misinformation

Why waste a test kit on a person without symptoms?

Some people with coronavirus have mild or no symptoms. And in some cases, symptoms don’t appear until up to 14 days after infection.

During that incubation period, it’s possible to get coronavirus from someone with no symptoms. It’s also possible you may have coronavirus without feeling sick and are accidentally infecting others.

Treatment & Prevention

Why has the US been so far behind other countries with testing?

Experts say it’s due to cuts in federal funding for public health and problems with early testing.

Problems with public health infrastructure: Two years ago, the CDC stopped funding epidemic prevention activities in 39 countries, including China. This happened because the Trump administration refused to allocate money to a program that started during the 2014 Ebola outbreak.

Former CDC director Dr. Tom Frieden warned that move “would significantly increase the chance an epidemic will spread without our knowledge and endanger lives in our country and around the world.”

Problems with the testing: Malfunctions, shortages and delays in availability have all contributed to the slowdown.

In the first few weeks of the outbreak in the US, the CDC was the only facility in the country that could confirm test results — even though a World Health Organization test became available around the same time.

Some test kits that were sent around the country were flawed — a move that put the US behind about “four to five weeks,” says Dr. Rob Davidson, executive director of the Committee to Protect Medicare.

Treatment & Prevention

If a coronavirus patient gets pneumonia, what antibiotics have proven to be effective?

No antibiotics are effective against Covid-19 because the disease is caused by a viral infection, not a bacterial infection.

“However, if you are hospitalized for the [coronavirus], you may receive antibiotics because bacterial co-infection is possible,” the World Health Organization says.

There is no known cure for the novel coronavirus.

Treatment & Prevention

Did Dean Koontz predict this outbreak in the book “The Eyes of Darkness” almost 40 years ago?

No. There are some interesting coincidences in the 1981 fiction novel, which says “a severe pneumonia-like illness will spread around the globe” around the year 2020. Modern editions of the book call the biological strain “Wuhan-400,” and the current coronavirus outbreak started in Wuhan, China.

But there are important differences between the book and reality. The original version of the book called the strain the “Gorki-400,” in reference to a Russian locality, before it was later changed to the “Wuhan-400.” In the book, the virus was man-made, while scientists believe the novel coronavirus started in animals and jumped to humans. And in the book, the virus had a 100% mortality rate. Early estimates of the mortality rate for this coronavirus outbreak range from 2-4%.

myths & misinformation

Can the heat from a hand dryer kill coronavirus?

Hand dryers can’t kill the virus, according to WHO. The organization also says that UV lamps shouldn’t be used to sterilize hands or other areas of the body because the radiation can irritate skin.

Drinking hot water or taking hot baths won’t kill it, either.

Myths & misinformation

Can I get coronavirus from a package sent from China?

No. “The new coronavirus cannot be transmitted through goods manufactured in China or any country reporting Covid-19 cases,” the World Health Organization says.

“Even though the new coronavirus can stay on surfaces for a few hours or up to several days (depending on the type of surface), it is very unlikely that the virus will persist on a surface after being moved, travelled, and exposed to different conditions and temperatures,” WHO said.

The best ways to prevent transmission is to stay 6 feet away from those who don’t live with you, wear a face mask, stop touching your face and frequently wash your hands.

Myths & misinformation transmission



Source link

Postime të ngjashme

Opinion: Ted Cruz isn’t the only issue in Texas


Nearly a year ago, the Covid-19 pandemic began bringing death, disease and economic distress to millions of households. But the disaster hasn’t come alone — a host of others have struck the US in the past 12 months.

The 2020 hurricane season broke the record for the number of major storms, forcing meteorologists to dip into the Greek alphabet for new names. And this week freakish winter weather swept into the South, bringing record low temperatures to states such as Texas, Louisiana and Kentucky. At least 50 deaths have been attributed to the weather, including 10 hypothermia deaths in Harris County, which is home to Houston. Millions of people lost heat, power and access to food and clean water.

America isn’t a failed state, Frida Ghitis noted, but “the way it has ‘handled’ recent disasters, from the pandemic to the current weather crisis in Texas”, makes a “mighty nation” look like one.

As always in times of disaster, people turned to the government for help. The crisis brought into sharp relief politicians’ mistakes, wrote Ghitis. “Why are Texans freezing? There are many reasons, but this would not be happening if the state — dominated by Republicans committed to a small government ideology — had not severed its links to the national electrical grid for the sake of avoiding regulation. That regulation, among other things, would have required utilities to be better prepared. But Texas, the country’s top energy producer…is the only state in the contiguous US essentially unable to borrow energy from other states.”

Ted Cruz, the junior senator from Texas, isn’t in charge of keeping the lights on, but his decision to leave with his family for a vacation in Cancun on Wednesday was spectacularly ill-timed, prompting him to rush back and admit his mistake.

“Last August,” recalled James Moore, “Cruz boldly mocked California’s electricity problems during their heatwave and fires, tweeting that the state was ‘unable to perform even the basic functions of civilization, like having reliable electricity.’ More hilariously, Cruz ridiculed the Austin mayor for flying to a Mexican beach during Covid after urging his city’s residents to stay home. Senator Sensitive will be performing his comedy act for at least four more years.
Adam Sobel, who studies extreme weather, wrote “there is an ongoing, legitimate scientific debate” about exactly what role global climate change plays in producing storms like this week’s. Some in the media and government claimed that the Texas “blackouts are happening because the state has too much renewable energy, and in particular because wind turbines are freezing. Not true. While some wind turbines did freeze, the majority of the lost power was from coal, natural gas, and nuclear plants that went down. Wind accounts for only 10% of Texas’s power during winter.”

Demonstrating that government can work effectively is key to the fortunes of President Joe Biden, wrote Julian Zelizer, who noted “there has been considerable confusion over the plan to reopen schools and the administration’s contradictory statements on the issue have already drawn criticism.”

After this week’s weather in Texas, Biden “declared a major disaster and ordered federal assistance, but what comes next will be key…Presidents are judged right off the bat by their ability to govern, implement policies and wield the levers of the federal government efficiently.”
On Friday the US officially rejoined the Paris climate accord. Alok Sharma, the President of COP26, the 26th United Nations Climate Change Conference, welcomed the US “back to the frontline of the global fight against climate change.” Its effects are all around us, Sharma wrote: “melting glaciers, sea level rises, crop degradation, deforestation, and pollution choking some of the world’s greatest cities…taking a heavy toll on human health, the destruction of homes and livelihoods, and an alarming loss of biodiversity.”

Hitting the road

Sandy and Andrea Tolan spent Christmas in Tucson and were planning to head home to Los Angeles when they decided they didn’t want her to get on a plane in the midst of a pandemic to pick up their 11-year-old son, who was visiting his biological father in Florida. So, like many Americans these days, they decided driving cross country would be a safer bet.

“We focused on staying healthy, not an easy task when so many fellow citizens — in gas stations, quick marts, even take-out restaurants — refused to wear masks,” Sandy Tolan wrote.

At a Subway in Arizona, “a customer in front of me ignored the ‘mandatory mask’ sign. When I asked the employee why they didn’t enforce wearing a mask, she just shrugged. At a Texas barbecue joint, as I waited for takeout in my ‘Green Bay Football’ sweatshirt, a man in a line of maskless bar patrons looked over, loudly proclaiming the Packers would lose that coming weekend. (Alas, he was correct.) But for the most part we faced little hostility. Sometimes people stared at us as if we were Martians….

“Nomadland,” a film that is being touted for major awards this season, was filmed in 2018, long before anyone could foresee a road-trip boom provoked by a pandemic. “Two years later Covid lockdowns would send sales of RVs and camper vans skyrocketing,” wrote Sara Stewart. “Suddenly, everyone wanted to hit the road in their own home on wheels — because that felt like one of the only safe places to be.”

The movie stars Frances McDormand as a “widowed and unemployed Nevadan who puts most of her belongings into storage and hits the road in her van, retrofitted to be a home on wheels. She drives around the US from work gig to work gig. One job is holiday-season packing at a gargantuan Amazon warehouse in Virginia, another harvesting sugar beets in North Dakota. Along the way, she connects and reconnects with like-minded travelers, older Americans who, for one reason or another, are living out of their vans and RVs, doing seasonal work and occasionally coming together to trade tips and celebrate nomad life.” The film, she said, is “a masterpiece of natural beauty.”

In Vermont, Scott Langley was “walking by a frozen lake, singing to his departed wife,” wrote Thomas Lake.

He “was 65, diabetic, nervously enduring the unknown period of time between this afternoon and the day he could get his coronavirus vaccination. He’d been up since 5:30, and had taken his medicine, gotten his 14-year-old daughter to school, worn two masks into Hannaford, resisted the urge to punch the maskless customer in the produce section. He ate a low-carb lunch and vigorously pedaled the exercise bike, trying to keep his blood glucose down, doing whatever he could to keep Ailyn from becoming an orphan.”

And the song he was singing was “Some days are diamonds, some days are stone,” an apt reflection of the hard times we’re going through and the hope that keeps us going, wrote Lake.

For more on coping with Covid:

Cuomo, Newsom and Covid-19

Last spring, New York’s Andrew Cuomo and California’s Gavin Newsom were feted as governors who had figured out how to fight Covid-19, in contrast to the Trump administration’s erratic leadership. Cuomo wrote a book about it and even got an Emmy “Founders Award” for his daily pandemic briefings.

Now he’s under fire for his handling of information on nursing home deaths, and Newsom is facing a potential recall vote.

“Late last month, New York State Attorney General Letitia James issued a scathing report about how nursing homes in the state handled Covid-19, including a finding that the state’s Department of Health undercounted Covid deaths at nursing homes by approximately 50%,” wrote Jennifer Rodgers.

When the Justice Department and state legislators asked for data on nursing homes, “the Cuomo administration, according to a recent admission by a top Cuomo aide, delayed the release of the figures out of concern about a possible politically motivated federal investigation…If New Yorkers want transparency and accountability from this administration, our public integrity systems provide the tools to make that happen.”

Newsom’s mistake was going to a birthday dinner for a lobbyist at the famous restaurant French Laundry, wrote Lincoln Mitchell. “This occurred while California was under a partial lockdown and gatherings of a dozen people like this were forbidden, even if held outdoors.” Some Californians, including his Republican rivals, have never forgiven the governor for it. “This was an enormous misstep by Newsom, for which he offered a less than entirely convincing apology.”

Now Republicans are helping collect signatures on petitions to force Newsom to undergo a recall vote, the year before he’s eligible to run for reelection anyway. It’s an overreaction, wrote Mitchell. The governor’s record has been mixed, but on Covid, California’s “response under Newsom has been, relative to other states, about the middle of the pack or slightly better.

‘Former guy’ and Biden

For an hour on Tuesday evening, it was as if the last four years hadn’t happened. In a CNN town hall hosted by Anderson Cooper, President Biden calmly set out his policy priorities, answered audience questions and reassured an 8-year-old girl that she had little reason to fear getting Covid-19. The biggest hint that he was succeeding a wildly controversial president came when Biden referred to the “former guy” and said, without naming him, that all the living former presidents but one had called him. (“I’m tired of talking about Donald Trump,” Biden said at another point.)

“The problem with radically changing norms of behavior in politics, and especially with making political life crasser and more shocking, is that it’s hard to walk that back and sustain the public’s attention,” wrote Jill Filipovic. “For so many, the Trump presidency was horrible and horrifying. It also garnered clicks and attention, outrage and fandom.” The media needs to “cover this White House not as voyeurs obsessed with scandal and conflict, but as interpreters and checks on power who can hold this president accountable and explain what his policies and decisions actually mean for our day-to-day lives. And the rest of us need to act in kind and take on the responsibility of good citizenship…
Biden’s top legislative priority now is the $1.9 trillion Covid relief bill. The relief is urgently needed, wrote Jeffrey D. Sachs, but taxes eventually will have to go up to help pay for it. “Fortunately, we have many good places to raise tax revenues, starting with corporations that are flush with cash; billionaires who have hit the jackpot during Covid-19; and polluters who should bear the social costs of their damage to society.”
The pandemic exposed holes in America’s safety net that need to be plugged, observed Debra L. Ness. Twenty-eight years ago this month, the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) provided many workers with unpaid time off to care for themselves and loved ones. Covid-19 “jumpstarted incredible momentum for paid family and medical leave, building off the successes in nine states and in Washington, DC. Our country began to realize that workers shouldn’t sacrifice their health and the well-being of their family for a paycheck — not during Covid, not ever.”

GOP civil war

The “former guy” tag is an effective way to counter Trump, wrote Michael D’Antonio. “Depriving Trump of attention hits him where it hurts. As President, and before that as a private businessman, Trump was an eager attention-seeker, steadily barraging the world with outrageous statements, conspiracy theories and other nonsense…” But in Republican circles, where the former president’s support is still substantial, ignoring Trump may not be an option.
Rep. Adam Kinzinger, an Illinois Republican who has blasted Trump, became the target of a letter from some of his relatives accusing him of joining “the devil’s army.” Psychologist Peggy Drexler wrote that “families have been ripped apart by the turn politics has taken, and that much of blame lies with the former president, a longtime spokesmodel for conflict over comity.”

After voting to acquit Trump in the impeachment trial, Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell put the blame squarely on him for whipping up the crowd that stormed the Capitol on January 6. The civil war among Republicans is now out in the open, with Trump issuing a statement excoriating McConnell.

Lanhee Chen wrote, “McConnell’s actions in the last several days… may seem confusing — or just maddening — to observers on both the right and the left, but they were not illogical or ill-conceived. He is doing all he can to ensure that he is in a position to push the GOP in the direction he believes is best for the future success of the party.” That means trying to block Senate candidates whose extreme pro-Trump views would alienate moderate voters.
“Trumpism is the opposite of conservatism,” wrote former Sen. Jeff Flake, a Republican. “There is nothing to gain by making a pilgrimage to Florida. There is no enlightened mystic at Mar-a-Lago — just a diminished man who lost an election and couldn’t accept it.

Mars

On Thursday, NASA’s Perseverance rover, launched last July, landed in the Jezero crater on Mars, “which was once a river delta, disgorging into a lake,” as physicist Don Lincoln pointed out.

It could lead to the biggest scientific discovery of its kind in four centuries: “The discovery of life that evolved on a planet other than Earth would change humanity’s understanding of its place in the cosmos. The last time such a paradigm-shifting advance occurred was in 1610, when Galileo first saw the moons of Jupiter, proving that the Earth (and, by extension, humanity) isn’t at the center of the universe. And, since our celestial neighbor once hosted liquid water, it’s an excellent location to look for ancient life.”

Rush Limbaugh

Talk radio played a huge role in the rise of Donald Trump, the politician. And the master of that medium was Rush Limbaugh, who died this week at 70. Limbaugh’s show, wrote historian Nicole Hemmer, “laid the groundwork for Trump’s presidency.” Top Republicans “essentially transformed Limbaugh into the de facto leader of their party — and turned conservative media into a powerful political institution that carried as much weight as the party itself.”

“Limbaugh came to talk radio during the era of the shock jock, when hosts competed to see who could be the most outrageous,” Hemmer noted. “So he would level vicious attacks on people suffering from AIDS, or on the poor and homeless, and then, when greeted with outrage, say that his critics just weren’t in on the joke.”

SE Cupp said in her weekly “Unfiltered” video that Limbaugh “didn’t just tap into populism, he exploited its worst undercurrents — the grievances, the resentment, the anger, the racism, the bigotry, the xenophobia. He spent years fomenting it, turning neighbor against neighbor, American against American, giving permission to all his listeners to join him in devaluing the lives of others.”

Lincoln

Our colleague Breeanna Hare asked six historians from CNN’s new series “Lincoln: Divided We Stand” for their thoughts on the lasting myths surrounding the 16th President.

Edna Greene Medford of Howard University observed that one of “the more complicated and persistent historical beliefs is the one that credits Abraham Lincoln as having single-handedly ‘freed the slaves.'” With the Emancipation Proclamation, she wrote, “he opened the door that led to the end of slavery throughout America. But that is only half of the story. Often missing in the emancipation narrative is the role others played in freeing enslaved people and ending the institution. In order for freedom to be realized, bondmen and women had to either make their way to the Union lines or be liberated by Northern soldiers and sailors. Among that liberating force were Black men, who made up 10% of the Union military.”
To Kate Masur of Northwestern University, a key myth is “that Lincoln was so magnanimous and empathetic that if he had not been murdered, the United States would have avoided the racial conflict of the Reconstruction era and maybe even decades of state-imposed discrimination and disenfranchisement.” History suggests otherwise, she argued.

Don’t miss

Jane Greenway Carr interviews Gayle Tzemach Lemmon: These are the women who crushed the Caliphate
Christine Todd Whitman, Norman Eisen and Joanna Lydgate: The accountability era begins
Greg Fischer, Eric Garcetti, Lori Lightfoot and Brandon Scott: Gun violence crisis in America’s cities

AND…

The binge watch

​

In the ever-expanding world of streaming television, the question of “what to watch” is inevitably leading to the “where to watch it” question. There’s no doubt more quality television around than anyone could possibly binge.

The Canadian comedy “Schitt’s Creek” drew a devoted audience on Netflix. More recently, Ted Lasso began vying for the lead spot in the trend of “nice” comedy, on Apple TV+. “Flip it on and, like one of those light-therapy sun lamps, feel your winter angst melting away,” wrote Sara Stewart. It’s “a mental health stealth bomb. Dressed up as a sports comedy, it espouses a philosophy that’s hilariously antithetical to that genre: The notion that being a decent person, and treating other people with respect, is more important than who scored the most goals.”
And this week, HBO Max, which is owned by CNN’s parent company WarnerMedia, began airing “It’s a Sin,” a UK-produced series about “the last great pandemic to engulf Britain and America: the HIV/AIDS crisis of the 1980s and 1990s,” wrote Kate Maltby. “Despite its status as historical storytelling, one of the things that makes ‘It’s a Sin’ extraordinary — and there will be few more extraordinary pieces of television this year — is its resonance in the time of Covid-19. This is a show about what pandemics do to our friendships; to our capacity for physical intimacy; to our fear of other people’s bodies.”



Source link

Postime të ngjashme

Opinion: Why ‘It’s a Sin’ resonates for the Covid generation


“It’s a Sin” isn’t a show about the current Covid-19 pandemic. It’s about the last great pandemic to engulf Britain and America: the HIV/AIDS crisis of the 1980s and 1990s. It’s the creation of Russell T. Davies, the showrunner behind the 2005 revival of “Dr Who” and 1999’s “Queer as Folk.” Now he’s retelling the history of how HIV/AIDS first cut through London’s gay scene. A recent hit on British terrestrial TV, it premieres to US audiences on HBO Max this week. Despite its status as historical storytelling, one of things that makes “It’s a Sin” extraordinary — and there will be few more extraordinary pieces of television this year — is its resonance in the time of Covid-19.

This is a show about what pandemics do to our friendships; to our capacity for physical intimacy; to our fear of other people’s bodies.

When Jill scours herself after visiting an HIV positive friend she is, of course, wrong to imagine she’s at risk. HIV is not transmitted through the skin, or through the air. But a lot of people get medical facts wrong in “It’s A Sin.” One young man, Ritchie, is convinced that warnings being spread about HIV are part of a homophobic conspiracy to stop gay men having sex.

In one of the show’s most memorable sequences, he dances through a montage of nightclub scenes, reciting to camera his list of reasons why practicing safe sex would constitute giving into scaremongering: “it’s a racket, it’s a money-making scheme for drugs companies … they wanna scare us and stop us having sex and make us really boring, basically because they can’t get laid … they say it arrived from outer space on a comet. And they say that God created it to strike us dead. They say it was created in a laboratory to kill us. They say it’s the Russians. They say we got it from the jungle … How did I know it’s not true? Because I’m not stupid.”

Set against the sound of “Do You Wanna Funk” by Sylvester — a queer icon who would die from complications of AIDS in 1988 — the sequence is shot like a music video. It isn’t a mocking exposé of ignorance: it’s a bittersweet celebration of a beautiful young man who’s already experienced so much loss that he wants to deny the existence of death.

Like many characters in the show, Ritchie has escaped from a repressive home and, exploring the gay party scene as a student in London, feels he’s only just begun to live. That the party is poisoned, the site of liberation also a trap, seems too bitter an irony for him to believe. It’s brilliantly done.

Make the odd tweak, and this sequence could be a homemade anti-vaxxer video or conspiracy theory about Covid-19. This is why “It’s a Sin” feels so important at this moment: it’s a show which humanizes characters who make mistakes in the face of a pandemic.

Shame comes with a death toll

With a touch of didacticism, showrunner Davies positions us to realize that we make some of our greatest mistakes when we read moral prejudices into science. In the universe of the show, these mistakes can stem from homophobic cruelty — several characters are abandoned in hospital wards by nurses who won’t go near them. They can stem from a refusal to change behaviors we see as central to our identity — Ritchie’s refusal to learn about safe sex. They can stem from blind panic — in one scene that feels straight out of 2020, a dying man’s sister sees another caregiver wearing rubber gloves. Like a character from a recent “Saturday Night Live” sketch, the sister spends the rest of the scene frantically repeating a question about whether she should be wearing rubber gloves also.

As a character detail, it is there to indicate her extreme selfishness. But in the age of Covid-19, it also feels human. Who hasn’t panicked this year about how to protect themselves?

The moral impulse which Davies condemns most is the inclination to shame and to be shamed. In the first episode, Ritchie’s father gives him advice about practicing safe sex with women. He and his friends get no such guidance about safe sex with other men, because they come from homes where the very concept of such desire is shameful. (We watch Ritchie throw away his paternally-provided pack of condoms — wryly smiling at his father’s fear that he’ll otherwise “get a girl into trouble.”)

One character doesn’t reveal his AIDS diagnosis even to his other gay friends, for fear of being labeled promiscuous. Like many of these characters, he returns to his unloving family home to die: back in London, “going home” becomes a euphemism in gay-friendly circles for death by AIDS.

In the final episode, Jill, with the clarion moral certainty of the showrunner’s voice, confronts a homophobic mother whose son has just died, explaining that her son was killed by shame. “He kept the shame going by having sex with men and infecting them and then running away. ‘Cause that’s what shame does. It makes him think he deserves it.” No wonder Davies took his title from a 1987 Pet Shop Boys track, the lyrics of which begin: “When I look back upon my life / it’s always with a sense of shame.” Shame is what prevents honest conversations about the science of HIV transmission; understanding that science saves lives.

‘Either angelic or monstrous’

It is therefore frustrating that Davies is determined to fix so much of the culpability for all this shame specifically on women. In “It’s A Sin,” women are either angelic or monstrous. Jill is the only female lead character — and fair enough, this is a show which specifically sets out to tell the story of the impact of the pandemic on gay men — but she’s also the least complex. For all her anxious scrubbing, she spends the whole time selflessly caring for her dying friends. Great — but how about letting Jill have a personal life too? Or even a strain of complexity?

All this is reminiscent of Matthew Lopez’ brilliant recent play, “The Inheritance,” which reworks the experience of the post-AIDS generation of gay New Yorkers as a modern adaptation of EM Forster’s novel “Howard’s End”, another superb work of art, but one whose only female character– a regretful mother who has turned herself into the Mother Theresa of the AIDS hospice — appears in the final 20 minutes.

In “It’s a Sin,” two central characters die of AIDS. We meet both their mothers. One mother reacts with unflinching moral perfection as her son dies; one is the monster confronted by Jill. By the finale, she has become caricature who owes more to homophobic fantasies of the over-attached mother than to queer-positive literature. Like the ‘overbearing’ mothers of gay sons imagined in too many reactionary novels, she asserts total control of her son’s life and bans his friends from his deathbed.

By contrast, we meet two fathers in the first episode who appear irredeemably homophobic (and in one case, racist.) Both ask for and are offered redemption. Davies clearly aims to make feminist TV: the very first words uttered in “It’s A Sin” come from a young man expressing his horror at historic restrictions on women. (If only to assert, in heavy-handed fashion, his character’s distance from his heteronormative family.) Yet in the show Davies has created, character growth and moral complexity are for men only.

The ‘unwitting lesson to the Covid-19 generation’

There are other criticisms to make. The depiction of Thatcherite politics is clunky: Stephen Fry, British national treasure, seems to be sending up his hammy public persona as closeted Conservative MP Arthur Garrison. For a show that seeks to take the AIDS stigma out of sex between gay men, there’s oddly little mention of anyone dying from other forms of HIV transmission. (As others have complained, there is no representation of a woman with HIV in the show.)
And in one of the most sophisticated British critiques of the show — which contains full spoilers — Brian Mullin has argued that “It’s A Sin” is wrong to give us explanations of how and why each ‘victim’ contracted HIV, introducing tidy moral narratives even as the show seemingly seeks to reject them. Will the Covid-19 dramas of the future feel the need to show viewers where each character contracted SARS-Cov-2, and whether they were taking “risks”?

Perhaps they will. Davies’ unwitting lesson to the Covid-19 generation is that human behavior in the face of a pandemic does affect health outcomes — precisely because moral prejudice gets in the way of public education. Meanwhile, there’s as much to learn here about the 1980s as about the 2020s: The 1980s soundscape alone is a perfectly curated paean to the decade’s leitmotif of desire and ambition. To the show’s target audience, the music may be as much of a discovery as is the history: this is a series aimed squarely at younger millennials and Generation Z, too young to have lived through the peak of the HIV crisis, more queer-friendly than any previous generation, but often woefully ignorant about this history.

For those of us who are older millennials, the story of AIDS was often the story of the art made about AIDS: we learned this history through Tom Hanks in “Philadelphia,” through the HBO adaptation of Tony Kushner’s “Angels in America,” through coverage of the NAMES Project Memorial Aids Quilt. “It’s a Sin” often seems to reject this artistic legacy completely. It breaks away from memorials that focus on grief, to an equal celebration of joy: in one vital scene, a dying character urges us not to forget that life in London’s gay scene was “so much fun.”

What does emerge from these sex-saturated, go-get-’em, Blondie-scored scenes is the confluence of 1980s and 2020s values: Ritchie and his friends are as determined to live their lives for themselves as any Thatcherite. The looming culture war that surrounds them seems to be about who gets to fulfill their desires to the max, and who gets to be marginalized and hated. The boundaries of political identities are fiercely policed. This could be Trump’s America.

All of this is a disjunction from more conventional AIDS narratives of noble victimhood. This is AIDS history for a generation who believe gay life is something to be celebrated and that celebration always means a party. They are the first generation who can’t remember anything of the shadows of the 1980s and 1990s: the recent success of both “It’s A Sin” and “The Inheritance” is a corrective to the era of “Will and Grace” or “Queer as Folk,” when gay-led stories in pop culture were notable for avoiding references to the trauma memory of AIDS in gay communities.

But this generation of viewers will grow up with a youth scarred by the Covid-19 pandemic. Like the first AIDS victims, they know the cost when a government grotesquely mismanages a public health crisis. As history refresher and as lived experience, “It’s a Sin” will resonate.



Source link

Postime të ngjashme

Studimi: Pandemia në Shqipëri Pengoi trajtimin e Pacientëve


Në Tiranë, një studim i shoqatës “Së Bashku për Jetën” zbuloi një seri vështirësish që pandemia solli për trajtimin e afro 400 mijë të sëmurëve kronikë, që ka Shqipëria.

Shumë prej tyre duhet të vinë rregullisht në Qendrën Spitalore Universitare “Nënë Tereza”, kur brenda saj janë dy spitale Covid.

Shoqata “Së Bashku për Jetën” sapo ka kryer një studim mbi nevojat që kanë të sëmurët kronikë për t’u decentralizuar recetat me rimbursim.

Në studim del një varësi e plotë e tyre nga QSUT, e cila mban nën kontroll gjendjen shëndetësore të pacientëve kronikë për afro 55 sëmundje.

Shqipëria ka aktualisht mbi 400 mijë të sëmurë kronikë dhe bëhet fjalë për kosto të jashtëzakonshme që përballon buxheti i shtetit dhe buxhetet familjare.

“Pacientët kronikë nga i gjithë vendi – thotë Denisa Canameti e shoqatës “Së bashku për Jetën” – marrin barnat e nevojshme për kurimin e patologjive të tyre vetëm në QSUT në Tiranë, çfarë sjell një kosto shumëpërmasore për këta pacientë dhe familjet e tyre”.

Sëmundjet kronike në Shqipëri nisin nga tumoret vdekjeprurëse, leucemia, talasemia, hiv/aids e deri te dializa.

Ato janë një barrë e rëndë shëndetësore, sociale dhe ekonomike për pacientin dhe familjen e tij, ç’ka rëndohet edhe nga kërkesat administrative të vendosura për kujdes të centralizuar, kur shumë prej ilaceve madje merret vetëm në farmacinë e QSUT.

Centralizimi i trajtimit të sëmundjeve kronike vetëm në QSUT, përvecse mjaft i kushtueshëm për pacientët është edhe I rrezikshëm, përse brenda territorit të saj janë edhe dy spitale COVID.

Kufizimet e qarkullimit për shkak të pandemisë shkaktoi një seri vështirësish për të sëmurët kronikë me talasemi, hiv etj., dhe, krahas rrezikimit të jetës, shtoi edhe kostot e transportit.

Studimi vërjeti një situatë “monopol” mbi disa shërbime dhe përshkrimin e barnave ngashërbimet përkatëse në QSUT, që sanksionohet përmes protokolleve të përdorimit të barnave. Autorët theksuan se çdo spital në vend ka farmaci spitalore, ndaj pacientët mund të barnave spitalore sa më pranë vendit të banimit. Kjo punë lehtësohet edhe regjistrat kombëtarë të pacientëve kronikë, që ul në maksimum mundësinë e abuzimit me recetat me rimbursim.

Një tjetër lehtësi për pacientët do të ishin edhe konsultat përmes telemjekësisë, rrjeti I të cilës është i shtrirë në spitalet rajonale./VOA

Postime të ngjashme

Si Ndikon Gjumi Në Imunitetin Tuaj? – Këshillat Që duhet Të Ndiqni


deri më tani, ju e dini se gjumi është thelbësor për trupin tonë, ai ndikon në funksionimin e metabolizmit, trurit dhe shëndetit të zemrës.

Por ajo për të cilën s’ flasim gjithmonë është se si gjumi forcon imunitetin dhe mund të ndihmojë në mbrojtjen ndaj infeksioneve virale.

Pandemia (COVID-19) është akoma duke u përhapur në të tërë vendin, andaj ne duhet të sigurohemi që sistemet tona imune të jenë në formën më të mirë .

Ndoshta ju preferoni të qëndroni zgjuar deri në orët e vona të natës, duke parë shfaqjet tuaja të preferuara në TV ose ndoshta mund të vuani nga pagjumësia.

Pavarësisht arsyes që s’ po flini mjaftueshëm, specialistët thonë se gjumi është një nga mënyrat më të mira për të parandaluar sëmundje të ndryshme dhe ju ndihmon për të pasur një shëndet të mirë.

Qelizat imune njihen gjithashtu si qeliza T. Këto qeliza luftojnë kundër patogjenëve intraqelizorë, ose qelizave që janë të infektuara me sëmundje të tilla si gripi, HIV dhe koronavirusi.

Studimet tregojnë se gjumi ka një ndikim të madh në qelizat T.

Për shembull, një studim në të cilin AgroWeb.org u mbështetet, zbuloi se personat që flinin mirë kishin përmirësuar funksionimin e qelizave T, duke forcuar imunitetin kundër viruseve patogjene.

Studiuesit arritën në përfundimin se kjo është ngaqë gjatë gjumit të qetë, hormonet e stresit si epinefrina dhe norepinefrina, si dhe përbërjet pro-inflamatore ishin shumë më të ulëta, gjë që lejon qelizat T të bëjnë punën e tyre më mirë.

Por kjo s’ është e gjitha ngaqë sipas specialistëve, të qënurit i privuar nga gjumi ndalon trupin tuaj të prodhojë citokina mbrojtëse, ose përbërës që i nevojiten trupit për të luftuar infeksionet dhe inflamacionin. Antitrupat që mbrojnë trupin nga infeksionet virale prodhohen gjithashtu më pak tek ata që s’ flenë sa duhet.

Por sa gjumë duhet të bëjë një njeri për të pasur shëndet më të mirë?

specialistët thonë se të rriturit duhet të flenë midis shtatë dhe tetë orë çdo natë. Gjithashtu fjetja për nëntë deri në dhjetë orë në natë, mund të rrisë rrezikun e cilësisë së dobët të gjumit dhe të çojë në probleme të tjera të gjumit si pagjumësia ose vështirësia për të fjetur.

Është jashtëzakonisht e rëndësishme të flini gjumë mjaftueshëm.

Ne e dimë që kjo mund të jetë e vështirë, ndaj ju mund të provoni të praktikoni joga ose meditim para gjumit, ushtrime të cilat ndihmojnë duke zvogëluar stresin./AgroWeb.org

Postime të ngjashme

Anemia, shkaqet dhe tretmani

Anemia është një gjendje në të cilën, varësisht nga lloji, numri i qelizave të kuqe të gjakut (RBC) tuaj është më i ulët se normalja ose ekziston një problem me proteinën e hemoglobinës brenda atyre qelizave.

Hemoglobina është përgjegjëse për bartjen e oksigjenit në indet tuaja, kështu që anemia mund të ju bëjë të ndiheni të dobët dhe të lodhur. Ka një sërë shkaqesh pse paraqitet anemia, që nga humbja e gjakut te mungesat e tij.

Simptomat e anemisë

Po qe se anemia është e lehtë, mund të mos përjetoni ndonjë simptomë. ndërsa nësa anemia përkeqësohet, simptomat mund të shfaqen ose të bëhen më të theksuara. Këto mund të përfshijnë:

Lodhje ose lodhje
• Dobësi
• Një pamje e zbehtë në lëkurë
• Marramendje ose mendjelehtësi
• Rrahje të shpejtë të zemrës, e njohur si takikardi
• Gulçim
• Verdhëza (disa lloje të anemisë shkaktojnë zverdhje të lëkurës)

Llojet e anemisë

Llojet e ndryshme të anemisë mund të kategorizohen nga tre shkaqet themelore të gjendjes: prodhimi i zvogëluar i qelizave të kuqe të gjakut, humbja e gjakut dhe shkatërrimi i shtuar i qelizave të kuqe të gjakut (hemoliza)

Anemitë e shkaktuara nga prodhimi i zvogëluar i qelizave të kuqe të gjakut përfshijnë:

Anemi nga mungesa e hekurit: Për shkak të aftësisë së zvogëluar për të marrë hekur, ose nga humbja kronike e gjakut që zbraz rezervat e hekurit.
Anemi të mungesës së vitaminës: Shkaktuar nga marrja joadekuate e folatit, B-12, ose vitaminës C; një lloj i quajtur anemi e dëmshme rezulton nga një paaftësi për të marrë vitaminën B-12.
Anemi e inflamacionit: Për shkak të sëmundjeve kronike si sëmundja e veshkave, leukemia dhe kanceret e tjerë të gjakut, lupusi, HIV dhe artriti reumatoid.
• Anemi e shkaktuar nga kimioterapia (e përkohshme ndërsa qelizat burimore punojnë për të rifilluar prodhimin e RBC)
• Anemi aplastike: Një rezultat i dështimit të palcës kockore

Llojet e anemisë në lidhje me humbjen e gjakut janë:

• Anemi akute e humbjes së gjakut: Shihet në trauma, operacion, ose gjakderdhje akute nga ulçera.
• Anemi kronike e humbjes së gjakut: Mund të shkaktohet nga periudha të rënda menstruale (menoragji) ose gjendje që shkaktojnë gjakderdhje të traktit gastrointestinal, të tilla si kanceri i zorrës së trashë ose sëmundja inflamatore e zorrëve. Shënim: Humbja kronike e gjakut gjithashtu mund të çojë në mungesë hekuri.

tretmani

Ashtu si shkaqet e anemisë, ka trajtime të shumta për të. tretmani që ju duhet varet nga shkaku i anemisë suaj. Trajtimet përfshijnë:

• Shtesa si hekuri, folati ose vitamina B12
• Transfuzionet e gjakut
• Kimioterapia (Po qe se anemia është shkaktuar nga kanceri)
• Injeksione të eritropoetinës (për njerëzit me anemi të shkaktuar nga sëmundja e veshkave)
• Steroide (për anemi hemolitike autoimune)
• Splenektomia (heqja kirurgjikale e shpretkës) për disa forma të anemisë hemolitike


Disa forma të anemisë s’ kanë ndonjë trajtim specifik dhe mund të jenë gjatë gjithë jetës. Po qe se anemia është shkaktuar nga një sëmundje kronike, tretmani i gjendjes themelore mund të përmirësojë aneminë tuaj.

Burimi: Very Well Health

Postime të ngjashme

Sa kohë i duhet vaksinës së COVID që të japë efekt


Vaksina e COVID më në fund ka mbërritur dhe vaksinimi në të gjithë BE-në duhet të fillojë në fund të dhjetorit

Edhe kur merrni vaksinën, do të duhet kohë që trupi juaj të ndërtojë një përgjigje imune që do t’ju mbrojë, kështu që mjekët i nxisin njerëzit t’u përmbahen në masave parandaluese edhe pas vaksinimit.

Pra, duhet të jeni të mbrojtur plotësisht nga koronavirusi në afat prej rreth një muaji.

“Sapo të merrni vaksinën, zakonisht ka një vonesë midis marrjes së vaksinës dhe mbrojtjes nga virusi. Kjo është koha që i duhet sistemit tuaj imunitar për t’iu përgjigjur antigjenit të ri dhe për të zhvilluar kujtesën”, tha Inyema Ogbuagu, mjek i sëmundjeve infektive në Yale Medicine, për The Guardian.

Kjo do të thotë që qindra e mijëra njerëz që vaksinohen mund të jenë të pambrojtur”, ka thënë Ogbuagu.

Për më tepër, Po qe se anashkaloni një dozë të vetme të vaksinës, s’ do të mbroheni plotësisht dhe mund të infektoheni. Përveç kësaj, faktorë të ndryshëm ndikojnë në atë se sa shpejt sistemi imunitar i një personi i përgjigjet vaksinës.

Otto Yang, profesor i mjekësisë në departamentin e sëmundjeve infektive dhe mikrobiologjisë, imunologjisë dhe gjenetikës molekulare, tregon se mosha është një nga ata faktorë.

Kushtet shëndetësore që kërcënojnë sistemin imunitar, të tilla si HIV, gjithashtu mund të ndikojnë në atë se sa shpejt dhe në mënyrë efektive trupi i një personi ndërton imunitetin pas vaksinimit.

o.j/dita

Postime të ngjashme

Sa kohë duhet për të funksionuar një vaksinë e coronavirusit


Pas një viti të trazuar dhe të paparashikueshëm, vaksina e coronavirusit më në fund ka mbërritur dhe vaksinimi në të gjithë BE-në duhet të fillojë në fund të dhjetorit.

Edhe kur merrni vaksinën, do të duhet kohë që trupi juaj të ndërtojë një përgjigje imune që do t’ju mbrojë, kështu që mjekët i nxisin njerëzit t’u përmbahen në masave parandaluese edhe pas vaksinimit.

Pra, duhet të jeni të mbrojtur plotësisht nga coronavirusi në afat prej rreth një muaji.

“Sapo të merrni vaksinën, zakonisht ka një vonesë midis marrjes së vaksinës dhe mbrojtjes nga virusi. Kjo është koha që i duhet sistemit tuaj imunitar për t’iu përgjigjur antigjenit të ri dhe për të zhvilluar kujtesën”, tha Inyema Ogbuagu, mjek i sëmundjeve infektive në Yale Medicine, për The Guardian.

Kjo do të thotë që qindra e mijëra njerëz që vaksinohen mund të jenë të pambrojtur”, ka thënë Ogbuagu.

Për më tepër, Po qe se anashkaloni një dozë të vetme të vaksinës, s’ do të mbroheni plotësisht dhe mund të infektoheni. Përveç kësaj, faktorë të ndryshëm ndikojnë në atë se sa shpejt sistemi imunitar i një personi i përgjigjet vaksinës.

Otto Yang, profesor i mjekësisë në departamentin e sëmundjeve infektive dhe mikrobiologjisë, imunologjisë dhe gjenetikës molekulare, tregon se mosha është një nga ata faktorë. Kushtet shëndetësore që kërcënojnë sistemin imunitar, të tilla si HIV, gjithashtu mund të ndikojnë në atë se sa shpejt dhe në mënyrë efektive trupi i një personi ndërton imunitetin pas vaksinimit. /Telegrafi/

The post Sa kohë duhet për të funksionuar një vaksinë e coronavirusit appeared first on Telegrafi.

Postime të ngjashme

BB: Pandemia Do Të Përkeqësojë Treguesit e Tjerë Shëndetësorë – Shqipëria Nga Më Të rrezikuarat

Banka Botërore lajmëron se, pandemia Covid-19 do të bëhet shkak në përkeqësimin e treguesve kryesorë të shëndetit.

Presioni i pandemisë mbi sistemin shëndetësor dhe akumulimi i vonesave për të trajtuar sëmundjet e tjera do të përkeqësojë treguesit kryesorë globalë të shëndetit, duke rritur normat e vdekshmërisë të fëmijëve dhe nënave, shkallët e imunizimit, incidencën e tuberkulozit dhe prevalencën e HIV.

Ndikime negative do të ketë tek vendet që kanë numër të ulët mjekësh dhe infermierësh për banorë dhe ato me mungesë logjistike mjekësore.

Sipas Bankës Shqipëria (shih grafikun bashkëngjitur) renditet ne grupin e vendeve me të ardhura të mesme të larta në krah të vendeve afrikane për numrin e ulët të stafeve mjekësore për banorë. Shqipëria ka 4.9 mjekë dhe infermierë për banorë. Kjo shifër është shumë e ulët në raport me vendet e tjera të kontinentit ku bëjmë pjesë.

Sipas Bankës, numri i stafeve mjekësore dhe kostoja e shërbimeve janë thelbësore për të minimizuar rreziqet që i kanosen shëndetit.

Pandemia tregoi se edhe vendet me të ardhura të larta dhe shëndetësi të zhvilluar u gjendën në kolaps për të përballuar flukset e pacientëve.

Gjatë tri dekadave të fundit, niveli global i vdekshmërisë nën pesë vjeç ka rënë me rreth 60 për qind. Mirëpo pandemia mund të përkeqësojë këtë tregues.

Përhapja e shpejtë e një virusi të ri ka ushtruar presion të rëndë në sistemet shëndetësore në shumë vende, duke nxjerrë në pah si për pikat e forta ashtu edhe për dobësitë në kujdesin shëndetësor, përfshirë vendet me të ardhura të larta.

Vlerësimet më të fundit për 2015 tregojnë se 90 milionë njerëz janë shtyrë në varfëri ekstreme (domethënë, nën kufirin ndërkombëtar të varfërisë prej 1.90 $ në ditë) për shkak të shpenzimeve për shëndetin. ndërsa një studim i fundit i OBSH ka verifikuar se 8 për qind e familjeve në Shqipëria kanë rënë në varfëri për shkak të pagesave të larta për shëndetin.

Në 2019 një virus i ri filloi të përhapet në të gjithë botën, me pasoja të mëdha për shëndetin e njeriut dhe ekonominë globale.

Deri në fund të Tetorit 2020, më shumë se 46 milion raste të COVID-19 ishin regjistruar globalisht me 1.2 milionë jetë të humbura. Studimet epidemiologjike sugjerojnë se kjo mund të jetë një nënllogaritje. Pandemia ka sjellë vëmendje të shtuar ndaj ngjarjeve zoonotike (transmetimi i sëmundjeve nga kafshët tek njerëzit), rreziku i shfaqjes së sëmundjes së re dhe nevoja për t’u përgatitur në mënyrë adekuate për urgjencat shëndetësore globale.

Patogjenët me origjinë nga kafshët e egra ose shtëpiake – përfshirë antraksin, brucelozën, tërbimin, ethet Q, gripin e tipit A dhe ethet e Luginës së Riftit – shkaktojnë më shumë se 60 përqind të sëmundjeve infektive te njerëzit.

Rreth 75 për qind e sëmundjeve të reja infektive në zhvillim, të tilla si sindroma e rëndë akute e frymëmarrjes, ethet hemorragjike Ebola dhe shfaqja origjinale e HIV, janë me origjinë shtazore.

Studiuesit presin që transmetimi i sëmundjes nga kafshët te njerëzit do të vazhdojë dhe se asnjë zonë gjeografike s’ është e lirë nga rreziqet. ndërsa vendet përreth tropikëve duken veçanërisht të prekshme nga shfaqja e sëmundjeve infektive, vendet me popullsi të dendur janë gjithashtu në rrezik të lartë./Burimi:Monitor

Postime të ngjashme

Studim: Njerëzit po vuajnë më gjatë nga sëmundjet e pleqërisë se më parë

Studim: Njerëzit po vuajnë më gjatë nga sëmundjet e pleqërisë se më parë


Një studim i ri ka zbulur se shëndeti jonë është duke u përmisuar dhe jemi duke jetuar më gjatë se kurr më parë.

Gjithashtu edhe në shtetet me shëndetin më të dobët jetëgjatësia është duke u rritur, ndërsa njerëzit janë duke jetuar deri në 10 vite më shumë se kurrë më parë.

Tani, në të gjitha vendet e botës meshkujt mund të presin të jetojnë deri në 69 vjet, përderisa gratë deri në 75 vjet.

Edhe jetëgjatësia e shëndetit numri i viteve ku personat jetojnë me shëndet të mirë është në rritje.

Sidoqoftë, ky numër është rritur vetëm për gjashtë vite, duke sugjeruar se njerëzit mund të jetojnë më gjatë, por do të kalojnë më shumë kohë duke vuajtur nga sëmundjet e ndryshme.

specialistët besojnë se kjo mund të ndodh për shkak të rënieve të mëdha në përqindjet e vdekjeve për shumë sëmundje infektuese, duke përfshirë HIV/AIDS-in, malarien dhe diarrenë.

Veç kësaj, edhe përqindja e njerëzve që vdesin nga sëmundjet kardiovaskulare apo kanceri ka zbritur – por në një ritëm më të ngadaltë, zbulojnë hulumtuesit.

Sidoqoftë, sëmundjet jo-ngjitëse të cilat kanë origjinë nga stili i jetës, si sëmundjet e zemrës, sulmi në tru dhe diabeti (sëmundja e sheqerit), mund të shkaktojnë shtatë nga 10 vdekje, pohojnë hulumtuesit.

Progres është shënuar edhe në zvogëlimin e ujit të papijshëm dhe kanalizimit, por dietat, obeziteti dhe drogat janë rritur në një shifër alarmante./Familjajonë/

Postime të ngjashme

Über die Riechschleimhaut: Wie SARS-CoV-2 ins Gehirn gelangt

Hals-Nasen-Ohren


Forschende der Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin hat anhand von Gewebeproben verstorbener COVID-19-Patienten analysiert, wie SARS-CoV-2 ins Gehirn eindringen kann und wie das Immunsystem dort reagiert: SARS-CoV-2 tritt über die Nervenzellen der Riechschleimhaut in das Gehirn über. Das Team konnte dabei erstmals elektronenmikroskopische Aufnahmen intakter Coronaviruspartikel in der Riechschleimhaut anfertigen.

Dass COVID-19 nicht allein eine Atemwegserkrankung ist, gilt mittlerweile als gesichert. Nicht nur die Lunge, das Herz-Kreislauf-System oder den Magen-Darm-Trakt, sondern auch das zentrale Nervensystem kann SARS-CoV-2 beeinträchtigen: Mehr als ein Drittel der COVID-19-Betroffenen berichten über neurologische Symptome wie Geruchs- und Geschmacksverlust, Kopfschmerzen, Abgeschlagenheit, Schwindel und Übelkeit. Vereinzelt kommt es auch zu Schlaganfällen und anderen schwerwiegenden Erkrankungen. Forschende haben die Ursache dafür darin vermutet, dass das Virus in das Gehirn eindringt und dort bestimmte Zellen befällt. Doch wie gelangt SARS-CoV-2 dorthin? Unter Leitung von Dr. Helena Radbruch vom Institut für Neuropathologie der Charité und Prof. Frank Heppner, Direktor desselben Instituts, hat ein multidisziplinäres Forschungsteam den Eintritt des Virus in das Nervensystem und seinen weiteren Weg im Gehirn jetzt nachgezeichnet.

Dazu untersuchten Experten aus Neuropathologie, Pathologie, Rechtsmedizin, Virologie und der klinischen Versorgung die Gewebeproben von 33 Menschen, die an der Charité oder der Universitätsmedizin Göttingen infolge einer COVID-19-Infektion verstorben waren – im Schnitt in einem Alter von knapp 72 Jahren. Mit modernsten Methoden analysierten die Forschenden Proben aus der Riechschleimhaut sowie vier verschiedenen Hirnregionen: Sowohl im Gewebeverbund als auch in einzelnen Zellen fahndeten sie nach dem Erbgut von SARS-CoV-2 sowie einem Protein der Virushülle – dem Spike-Protein. Dem Team gelang es so, das Virus in verschiedenen neuroanatomischen Strukturen nachzuweisen, die Auge, Mund und Nase mit dem Hirnstamm verbinden. Die höchste Viruslast zeigte sich dabei in der Riechschleimhaut. Dort konnte das Forschungsteam mithilfe von Spezialfärbungen und elektronenmikroskopischen Aufnahmen auch erstmals intakte Coronaviruspartikel sichtbar machen: Sie fanden sich sowohl im Inneren von Nervenzellen als auch auf den Fortsätzen der dort ansässigen Deckzellen. Für diese Analysen elementar war eine ausgezeichnete Gewebequalität, die die Forschungsgruppe durch eine enge Abstimmung zwischen krankenversorgenden und pathologischen Bereichen und eine ausgefeilte Infrastruktur erreichte.

„Auf Basis dieser Daten gehen wir davon aus, dass SARS-CoV-2 die Riechschleimhaut als Eintrittspforte ins Gehirn benutzen kann“, sagt Heppner. Das ist anatomisch auch naheliegend: Hier befinden sich Schleimhautzellen, Blutgefäße und Nervenzellen sehr nah beieinander. „Von der Riechschleimhaut aus nutzt das Virus offenbar neuroanatomische Verbindungen wie beispielsweise den Riechnerv, um das Gehirn zu erreichen“, ergänzt der Neuropathologe. „Wichtig zu betonen ist aber, dass die von uns untersuchten COVID-19-Betroffenen per Definition – sie gehören zu der kleinen Gruppe von Patientinnen und Patienten, die letztlich daran versterben – einen schweren Verlauf gezeigt hatten. Die Ergebnisse unserer Studie können deshalb nicht zwangsläufig auf leichte oder mittelschwere Fälle übertragen werden.“

Noch nicht abschließend geklärt ist, wie exakt das Virus sich von den Nervenzellen weiterbewegt. „Unsere Daten sprechen dafür, dass das Virus von Nervenzelle zu Nervenzelle wandert, um das Gehirn zu erreichen“, erklärt Radbruch. „Vermutlich wird das Virus aber gleichzeitig auch über das Blutgefäßsystem transportiert, da sich auch in den Gefäßwänden im Gehirn Virus nachweisen ließ.“ SARS-CoV-2 ist dabei nicht das einzige Virus, das über bestimmte Bahnen ins Gehirn gelangen kann. „Andere Beispiele hierfür sind Herpes-simplex-Viren und das Rabiesvirus, das Tollwut verursacht“, erklärt die Wissenschaftlerin.

Die Forschenden untersuchten außerdem, wie das Immunsystem auf den Befall mit SARS-CoV-2 reagiert: So wiesen sie aktivierte Immunzellen im Gehirn und in der Riechschleimhaut nach und entdeckten deren Immun-Signaturen im Hirnwasser. In einigen der untersuchten Fälle stellten sie auch Gewebeschädigungen durch Schlaganfälle fest, die als Folge von Thrombembolien entstanden waren. „In unseren Augen liefert der SARS-CoV-2-Befall der Nervenzellen in der Riechschleimhaut eine gute Erklärung für die typischen neurologischen Symptome von COVID-19-Erkrankten, wie Geruchs- und Geschmacksstörungen“, erklärt Heppner. „Außerdem haben wir SARS-CoV-2 in Hirnregionen gefunden, die lebenswichtige Funktionen wie zum Beispiel die Atemtätigkeit steuern. Es ist nicht auszuschließen, dass bei schweren COVID-19-Verläufen der Virusbefall in diesen Hirnarealen die Atmung übergeordnet erschwert – zusätzlich zu der Beeinträchtigung der Atemfunktion durch den Virusbefall der Lungen. Ähnliches kann für Herz und Kreislauf gelten.“

Zur Studie: Voraussetzung für die Studie war die Einwilligung der Patientinnen und Patienten bzw. der Angehörigen, für die sich die Forschungsgruppe explizit bedankt. Bei COVID-19-Verstorbenen wird durch Neuropathologen und Pathologen eine Obduktion in Schutzausrüstung durchgeführt, wie sie auch bei Verstorbenen mit Tuberkulose oder HIV-Infektion verwendet würde. Die Studienergebnisse wurden am 4. Juni 2020 als Preprint veröffentlicht. Nach abgeschlossenem Peer-Review-Verfahren ist die Arbeit jetzt in der Fachzeitschrift Nature Neuroscience erschienen.

Originalpublikation:
Meinhardt J et al., Olfactory transmucosal SARS-CoV-2 invasion as port of central nervous system entry in individuals with COVID-19. Nat Neurosci 2020. doi: 10.1038/s41593-020-00758-5.

Postime të ngjashme

Njerëzit po jetojnë deri në 10 vite më gjatë se më parë, por po vuajnë më gjatë nga sëmundjet e pleqërisë


Shëndeti jonë është duke u përmirësuar dhe jemi duke jetuar më gjatë se kurrë më parë, ka zbuluar një studim i ri.

Edhe në shtetet me shëndetin më të dobët jetëgjatësia është duke u rritur, e ku njerëzit po jetojnë deri në 10 vite më shumëse kurrë më parë, transmeton Telegrafi.

Tani, në të gjitha vendet e botës meshkujt mund të presin të jetojnë deri në 69 vjet, përderisa gratë deri në 75 vjet.

Edhe jetëgjatësia e shëndetit – numri i viteve ku personat jetojnë me shëndet të mirë – është në rritje.

392A91CA00000578-3824754-image-a-11_1475764172130

Sidoqoftë, ky numër është rritur vetëm për gjashtë vite, duke sugjeruar se njerëzit mund të jetojnë më gjatë, por do të kalojnë më shumë kohë duke vuajtur nga sëmundjet e ndryshme.

specialistët besojnë se kjo mund të ndodh për shkak të rënieve të mëdha në përqindjet e vdekjeve për shumë sëmundje infektuese, duke përfshirë HIV/AIDS-in, malarien dhe diarrenë.

Veç kësaj, edhe përqindja e njerëzve që vdesin nga sëmundjet kardiovaskulare apo kanceri ka zbritur – por në një ritëm më të ngadaltë, zbulojnë hulumtuesit.

Sidoqoftë, sëmundjet jo-ngjitëse të cilat kanë origjinë nga stili i jetës, si sëmundjet e zemrës, sulmi në tru dhe diabeti (sëmundja e sheqerit), mund të shkaktojnë shtatë nga 10 vdekje, pohojnë hulumtuesit.

Progres është shënuar edhe në zvogëlimin e ujit të papijshëm dhe kanalizimit, por dietat, obeziteti dhe drogat janë rritur në një shifër alarmante. /Telegrafi/

The post Njerëzit po jetojnë deri në 10 vite më gjatë se më parë, por po vuajnë më gjatë nga sëmundjet e pleqërisë appeared first on Telegrafi.

Postime të ngjashme

Anti-vaccine bastion France warily eyes COVID shots


vaccine
Credit: CC0 Public Domain

France was once home to the father of immunisation, Louis Pasteur, but it is now among the most vaccine-sceptic nations on Earth—a pressing concern as it prepares one of the biggest vaccination campaigns in its history.

Britain’s announcement on Wednesday that it was approving a COVID-19 vaccine for general use piled pressure on other countries to shield their citizens from a virus that has killed nearly 1.5 million people worldwide.

French President Emmanuel Macron had already said he was aiming to begin inoculating those most exposed to the virus in early 2021, followed by a second phase targeting the wider public between April and June.

But he faces a tough task to persuade enough people to get the jabs to achieve herd immunity—the threshold at which the entire population is protected from the virus.

Risks ‘exaggerated’

A survey in Le Journal du Dimanche newspaper at the weekend showed only 41 percent of the French planned to get inoculated, compared with the 58 percent recorded in a recent Gallup poll in the US, where coronavirus and vaccine scepticism is also high.

Macron rejected a call from Greens leader Yannick Jadot to make the jab compulsory, saying he hoped to win over people with “conviction” and “transparency” instead.

Richard Lamette, a 65-year-old Paris-based plumber, told AFP he had no plans to get the COVID shot “until it has been well tested on the population”.

Remarking that several of his admittedly younger colleagues had contracted the virus but recovered within 10 days, he said he felt that the dangers had been “a bit exaggerated”.

“Other diseases kill far more people, like cancer and cigarettes and they don’t make as much of a fuss about them,” he argued.

‘Yellow vest’ influence

Long reputed as a nation of pill-poppers with one of the world’s highest rates of use of antibiotics and antidepressants, the French have in recent years grown increasingly suspicious of the pharmaceutical industry.

The anticapitalist “yellow vest” protest movement that erupted in opposition to fuel taxes in late 2018 amplified conspiracy theories about the government being beholden to drug companies—theories that were fuelled by the increase in the number of compulsory jabs for children from three to 11 in 2018.

A Gallup survey of 140,000 people in 44 countries showed the French to be the most vaccine-sceptical in the world, with one in three saying they did not believe vaccines to be safe.

The Journal du Dimanche poll showed the scepticism strongest among supporters of far-right and far-left political parties.

Health experts say public trust in inoculations began to erode after a 1980s scandal when hundreds of haemophiliacs were infected with HIV after receiving tainted transfusions.

Revelations in 2009 that a popular slimming drug Mediator caused serious heart damage and may have killed over 2,000 people further deepened the suspicion of drug companies.

Swine flu fiasco

Many French people also frown on mass vaccination campaigns after a drive in 2009 against swine flu ended with the state incinerating millions of superfluous jabs, costing hundreds of millions of euros.

For Jocelyn Raude, a professor at the EHESP School of Public Health in Rennes, the swine flu affair marked a shift in public opinion.

A number of doctors and pharmacists led by surgeon Henri Joyeux, based in the southern city of Montpellier, began to beat the anti-vaccine drum.

Joyeux, who has 175,000 followers on Facebook, “gave the (anti-vaccine) movement credibility”, Raude said.

On his website the doctor likens the race for a COVID jab to the arms race between the US and the Soviet Union.

Geographer Lucie Guimier, who did her thesis on the anti-vaccine movement, noted it was strongest in Marseille, home of Didier Raoult, the professor who touted the anti-malaria drug chloroquine as a cure for coronavirus

“The idea has taken root that it’s a rebel city against the central state. It’s quite dangerous in terms of public health,” she said.

Marseille deputy mayor Samia Ghali is among the sceptics.

Accusing the government of bungling its response to the coronavirus pandemic Ghali told BFMTV in September she did not “want to serve as a guinea pig” for a COVID-19 shot.


Follow the latest news on the coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak


© 2020 AFP

Citation:
Anti-vaccine bastion France warily eyes COVID shots (2020, December 3)
retrieved 3 December 2020
from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2020-12-anti-vaccine-bastion-france-warily-eyes.html

This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no
part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.



Postime të ngjashme

France, world’s most vaccine-sceptic country, warily eyes Covid-19 shots



Issued on:

France was once home to the father of immunisation, Louis Pasteur, but it is now among the most vaccine-sceptic nations on Earth – a pressing concern as it prepares one of the biggest vaccination campaigns in its history.

Britain’s announcement on Wednesday that it was approving a Covid-19 vaccine for general use piled pressure on other countries to shield their citizens from a virus that has killed nearly 1.5 million people worldwide.

French President Emmanuel Macron had already said he was aiming to begin inoculating those most exposed to the virus in early 2021, followed by a second phase targeting the wider public between April and June.

But he faces a tough task to persuade enough people to get the jabs to achieve herd immunity – the threshold at which the entire population is protected from the virus.

Risks ‘exaggerated’

A survey in Le Journal du Dimanche newspaper at the weekend showed only 41 percent of the French planned to get inoculated, compared with the 58 percent recorded in a recent Gallup poll in the US, where coronavirus and vaccine scepticism is also high.

Macron rejected a call from Greens leader Yannick Jadot to make the jab compulsory, saying he hoped to win over people with “conviction” and “transparency” instead.

Richard Lamette, a 65-year-old Paris-based plumber, told AFP he had no plans to get the Covid shot “until it has been well tested on the population”.

Remarking that several of his admittedly younger colleagues had contracted the virus but recovered within 10 days, he said he felt that the dangers had been “a bit exaggerated”.

“Other diseases kill far more people, like cancer and cigarettes and they don’t make as much of a fuss about them,” he argued.

‘Yellow vest’ influence

Long reputed as a nation of pill-poppers with one of the world’s highest rates of use of antibiotics and antidepressants, the French have in recent years grown increasingly suspicious of the pharmaceutical industry.

The anticapitalist “yellow vest” protest movement that erupted in opposition to fuel taxes in late 2018 amplified conspiracy theories about the government being beholden to drug companies – theories that were fuelled by the increase in the number of compulsory jabs for children from three to 11 in 2018.

A Gallup survey of 140,000 people in 44 countries showed the French to be the most vaccine-sceptical in the world, with one in three saying they did not believe vaccines to be safe.

The Journal du Dimanche poll showed the scepticism strongest among supporters of far-right and far-left political parties.

Health experts say public trust in inoculations began to erode after a 1980s scandal when hundreds of haemophiliacs were infected with HIV after receiving tainted transfusions.

Revelations in 2009 that a popular slimming drug Mediator caused serious heart damage and may have killed over 2,000 people further deepened the suspicion of drug companies.

Swine flu fiasco

Many French people also frown on mass vaccination campaigns after a drive in 2009 against swine flu ended with the state incinerating millions of superfluous jabs, costing hundreds of millions of euros.

For Jocelyn Raude, a professor at the EHESP School of Public Health in Rennes, the swine flu affair marked a shift in public opinion.

A number of doctors and pharmacists led by surgeon Henri Joyeux, based in the southern city of Montpellier, began to beat the anti-vaccine drum.

Joyeux, who has 175,000 followers on Facebook, “gave the (anti-vaccine) movement credibility”, Raude said.

On his website the doctor likens the race for a Covid jab to the arms race between the US and the Soviet Union.

Geographer Lucie Guimier, who did her thesis on the anti-vaccine movement, noted it was strongest in Marseille, home of Didier Raoult, the professor who touted the anti-malaria drug chloroquine as a cure for coronavirus.

“The idea has taken root that it’s a rebel city against the central state. It’s quite dangerous in terms of public health,” she said.

Marseille deputy mayor Samia Ghali is among the sceptics.

Accusing the government of bungling its response to the coronavirus pandemic, Ghali told BFMTV in September she did not “want to serve as a guinea pig” for a Covid-19 shot.

(AFP)



Source link

Postime të ngjashme

HIV-positive patients in Libya struggle for care amid Covid-19 pandemic



Issued on:

Tuesday is World AIDS Day and, today, an estimated 38 million people around the globe are living with HIV or have gone on to develop AIDS. Conditions for those living with HIV and treatment vary wildly around the world. In this video dispatch, FRANCE 24 reports on the situation in Libya, where patients have been confronted with a severe shortage of medicines for months that some attribute to the state’s focus on combating the coronavirus pandemic.

More than 400 people were infected with HIV in Libya in 2019, according to the National Centre for Disease Control. But HIV and AIDS figures remain estimates. The stigma and discrimination facing patients in Libya makes many reluctant to go to hospital for treatment.

FRANCE 24’s Moaz Al-Sheikh and Fraser Jackson report.

To watch, click on the video player above.



Source link

Postime të ngjashme

Child HIV treatment cost slashed: Unitaid


A strawberry-flavoured HIV treatment for the 1.7 million children living with the virus will slash the cost of yearly paediatric treatment by three quarters, Unitaid announced on World AIDS Day.

The dispersible treatment is the first specifically made for children and will initially be available in six African countries in the first half of 2021, the global health development organisation said in a statement.

The new formulation of the recommended first-line HIV treatment dolutegravir (DTG) will cost $120 a year instead of $480, said Unitaid, which works in partnership with the World Health Organization.

“A long-awaited HIV treatment designed specifically for children will now be available in low-and middle-income countries,” Unitaid said.

“The new pricing agreement with generic manufacturers Viatris and Macleods means a new dispersible formulation of the recommended first-line HIV treatment DTG will be launched at a yearly cost of $36 per child, reduced from around $400.”

This will bring down the total cost of yearly paediatric HIV treatment by three quarters from over $480 per child to under $120 per child, said Unitaid.


South Africa to launch advanced new HIV drug


© 2020 AFP

Citation:
Child HIV treatment cost slashed: Unitaid (2020, December 1)
retrieved 1 December 2020
from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2020-12-child-hiv-treatment-slashed-unitaid.html

This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no
part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.



Postime të ngjashme

Rastet me HIV/ AIDS në Kosovë


Sëmundja e HIV/AIDS transmetohet nga një person tek tjetri përmes tre mënyrave, përmes marrëdhënieve seksuale të pambrojtura, kalimi i virusit direkt në gjakë dhe kjo mund të ndodhë përmes shiringut Po qe se përdoret në më shumë se një person, mënyra e tret është kalimi i virusit nga nëna tek fëmija.

Kur njeriu infektohet rezulton HIV pozitivë, HIV/AIDS është sëmundje e pashëruar, dhe persona e infektuar kanë imunitet shumë të dobët.

Ky infeksioni ka prekur edhe Kosovën. Instituti Kombëtar i Shëndetësisë Publike ka njoftuar se në nga viti 1986 deri në dhjetor 2020 janë regjistruar 123 raste me HIV/AIDS.

Në vitin 2020 u regjistruan dy raste të infektimit me coronavirus.

“Që nga viti 1986 deri me 1 dhjetor të vitit 2020, në Kosovë janë raportuar 132 raste me HIV. deri më tani 51 kanë humbur jetën si pasojë e AIDS-it. Në vitin 2020, janë raportuar 2 raste me HIV infeksion.

Qendrat për Këshillim dhe Testim Vullnetar për HIV/AIDS ekzistojnë që nga viti 2003 në Kosovë dhe veprojnë në kuadër të Klinikës Infektive në QKUK, në IKSHPK gjithashtu edhe në në Ferizaj, Prizren dhe Pejë”, njofton IKShPK.

ndërsa në nivel global gjatë vitit 2019 rreth 38 milion njerëz ishin të infekatuar me HIV, 33 milion njerëz kanë humbur jetën si pasojë e infeksionit.

Tutje Instituti ka bërë të ditur se gjatë vitit 2019 690.000 njerëz kanë humbur jetën me HIV si pasoëj e mungesësë së shërbimeve për HIV, ndërsa 1.7 miluon të tjërë rezultojnë të infektuar.

“Llogaritet se 1 në 5 njerëz që jetojnë me HIV s’ e dijnë se janë të infektuar”, thuhet tutje në njoftimin e IKShPK-së.

Sot është shënuar dita botërore kundër HIV/AIDS.

Sot shënohet dita botërore kundër HIV/AIDS



No tags for this post.

Postime të ngjashme

Warning signs over effectiveness of HIV ‘wonder drug’ in sub-Saharan Africa


HIV
Scanning electromicrograph of an HIV-infected T cell. Credit: NIAID

Dolutegravir, the current first-line treatment for HIV, may not be as effective as hoped in sub-Saharan Africa, suggests new research published on World AIDS Day. The study finds that this so-called ‘wonder drug’ may be less effective in patients resistant to older drugs.

As HIV copies itself and replicates, it can develop errors, or ‘mutations’, in its genetic code (its RNA). While a drug may initially be able to supress or even kill the virus, certain mutations can allow the virus to develop resistance to its effects. If a mutated strain begins to spread within a population, it can mean once-effective drugs are no longer able to treat people.

HIV treatment usually consists of a cocktail of drugs that includes a type of drug known as a non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). However, in recent years, HIV has begun to develop resistance to NNRTIs. Between 10% and 15% of patients in much of sub-Saharan Africa are infected by a strain of HIV resistant to these drugs. If a patient is infected with an NNRTI-resistant strain, they are at a two- to three-fold increased risk of the drug regimen failing.

In 2019, the World Health Organization began to recommend dolutegravir as the preferred first-line treatment for HIV in most populations. Dolutegravir was dubbed a ‘wonder drug’ because it was safe, potent and cost-effective and scientists had seen no drug resistance against it in clinical trials. However, there is little data on the success of dolutegravir against circulating strains of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa.

In a study published today in Nature Communications, an international team of researchers from South Africa, the UK and the U.S. examined the genetic code of HIV to determine if drug resistance mutations in 874 volunteers living with HIV affected their treatment success. The individuals were enrolled in a clinical trial for people initiating HIV treatment to compare two drug regimens: efavirenz, an NNRTI and prior first-line therapy in the region, and dolutegravir.

The goal of this study was to determine whether drug resistance to efavirenz prior to starting treatment affected treatment success (suppression of the virus in the blood) over the first two years of therapy with both of these two regimens.

As expected, the presence of drug resistance substantially reduced the chances of treatment success in people taking efavirenz, successfully suppressing the virus over 96-weeks in 65% of participants compared to 85% of non-resistant individuals. However, unexpectedly, the same pattern was true for individuals taking dolutegravir-based treatments: 66% of those with efavirenz resistance mutations remained suppressed over 96-weeeks compared to 84% of those without the mutations. These relationships held true after accounting for other factors, such as treatment adherence.

“We fully expected efavirenz to be less effective among patients HIV strains resistant to NNRTIs,” said Dr. Mark Siedner, faculty member at the Africa Health Research Institute in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa and Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts. “What took us completely by surprise was that dolutegravir—a different class of drug which is generally effective in the face of drug resistance—would also be less effective in people with these resistant strains.

“We are working now to tease out if this was due to the virus or the participants—for instance, if people with resistance are less likely to take their pills regularly. Either way, if this pattern holds true, it could have far reaching impacts on our predictions of long-term treatment control for millions of people taking dolutegravir in the region.”

Professor Ravi Gupta from the Department of Medicine at the University of Cambridge said: “This a huge concern. Dolutegravir was very much seen as a ‘wonder drug’, but our study suggests it might not be as effective in a significant number of patients who are resistant to another important class of antiretroviral drugs.”

The researchers say it is not clear why efavirenz-resistant mutations should affect susceptibility of dolutegravir, though one hypothesis is that integrase inhibitors such as dolutegravir push the virus to replicate and mutate faster, in turn developing resistance to the new drug in an evolutionary arms race. Alternatively, it could be due to poor adherence to treatment regimens, even though the analysis accounted for adherence by two independent methods. Further research is needed to find out why.

Professor Gupta added: “What this shows is that we urgently need to prioritise point of care tests to identify people with drug resistance HIV, particularly against efavirenz, and to more closely and accurately monitor treatment adherence. The development of such tests is at an advanced stage, but there a lack of investment from funders and philanthropic donors. We urgently need agencies and individuals to step forward and help support these programmes.

“In addition, we need to provide widespread access to viral load monitoring so that we can find those who are struggling, get them on more appropriate regimens, and limit the emergence of resistance when patients are failing therapy.”


Antiretroviral therapy fails to treat one-third of HIV patients in Malawi hospital


More information:
Siedner, MJ et al. Reduced efficacy of HIV-1 integrase inhibitors in patients with drug resistance mutations in reverse transcriptase. Nat Comms; 1 Dec 2020; DOI: 10.1038/s41467-020-19801-x

Citation:
Warning signs over effectiveness of HIV ‘wonder drug’ in sub-Saharan Africa (2020, December 1)
retrieved 1 December 2020
from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2020-12-effectiveness-hiv-drug-sub-saharan-africa.html

This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no
part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.



Postime të ngjashme

Sot shënohet dita botërore kundër HIV/AIDS


1 Dhjetori është Dita Botërore e AIDS-it. Në këtë ditë pjesa më e madhe e botës mëson dhe informon popullatën lidhur më këtë sëmundje.

Këtë ditë e ka shënuar edhe Kosova.

Instituti Kombëtar i Shëndetësisë Publike ka bërë thirrje për ‘aksion’ për të përkrahur masat e parandalimit dhe kontrollit të HIV/AIDS-it.

Sëmundja e HIV/AIDS transmetohet nga një person tek tjetri përmes tre mënyrave, përmes mardhënieve seksuale të pambrojtura, kalimi i virusit direkt në gjakë dhe kjo mund të ndodhë përmes shiringut Po qe se përdoret në më shumë së një person, mënyra e tretë është kalimi i virusit nga nëna tek fëmija.

Kur njeriu infektohet rezulton HIV pozitivë.

Në njoftimin e IKShPK-së thuhet se në vitin 2019 rreth 38 milionë njerëz ishin me HIV, ndërsa kanë ndërruar jetë  690.000 njerëz me HIV përderisa 1.7 milion njerëz rezultojnë të infektuar me HIV/AIDS.

“Në mbarë botën:

  • Në fund të vitit 2019 rreth 38 milionë njerëz ishin me HIV.
  • Llogaritet se 1 në 5 njerëz që jetojnë me HIV s’ e dijnë se janë të infektuar.
  • Deri tani nga HIV-i kanë humbur jetën 33 milionë njerëz.
  • Gjatë vitit 2019 kanë ndërruar jetë 690.000 njerëz me HIV për shkak të mungesës së shërbimeve për HIV, ndërsa 1.7 milion tjerë janë infektuar.
  • Llogaritet se rreth 62% të infeksioneve të reja në mbarë botën i takojnë grup moshave 15-49 vjeç dhe grupacioneve të veçanta (narkomanët, punëtorët e seksit, transgjinorët, të burgosurit, meshkujt që kanë seks me meshkuj).
  • Infeksioni me HIV është i pashërueshëm. Megjithatë, terapia efikase antiretrovirale mund ta kontrollojë virusin dhe të ndihmojë parandalimin e bartjes së infeksionit tek njerëzit tjerë.

Ndikimi i infeksionit me COVID-19 tek personat me HIV është akoma duke u hulumtuar. Personat me HIV janë të rrezikuar nga sëmundjet serioze Po qe se kanë vlera të ulta të qelizave imunitare CD4 dhe Po qe se s’ marrin terapi efektive antiretrovirale”, ka shkruar Instituti.

“Ta përfundojmë epideminë e HIV/AIDS-it: Qëndrueshmëri dhe Ndikim”, është motoja për këtë vitë për infeksionin me HIV/ AIDS.



Postime të ngjashme

AIDS prevention progress brings hope for women, children in South Africa



Issued on:

Tuesday is World AIDS Day and, despite the virus fading into the background of public discourse in 2020 amid the coronavirus pandemic, an estimated 38 million people live with HIV or AIDS around the world. In this video dispatch, FRANCE 24 reports on the continuing fight against AIDS in South Africa, where one in five adults – or nearly 7.5 million people – are HIV positive.

In the country with the largest epidemic in the world, South African healthcare providers describe the progress made in treating AIDS, preventing the spread of HIV and their hope for a future very different from the past.

FRANCE 24’s Caroline Dumay, Stefan Carstens and Sam Bradpiece report.

To watch, click on the video player above.



Source link

Postime të ngjashme

​Zemaj në Ditën Botërore të AIDS: Ekziston akoma nevoja për ndërgjegjësim nga rreziku i këtij virusi


Ministri i Shëndetësisë, Armend Zemaj ka shkruar në Ditën Botërore kundër AIDS-it.

Zemaj thotë se në këtë ditë opinioni sensibilizohet për luftën kundër HIV-it dhe ofrohet mbështetja për njerëzit që jetojnë me HIV si dhe për të përkujtuar ata kanë kanë humbur jetën nga AIDS.

“Sot është Dita Botërore kundër AIDS-it. Në këtë ditë, opinioni sensibilizohet për luftën kundër HIV-it dhe ofrohet mbështetja për njerëzit që jetojnë me HIV, si dhe për të përkujtuar ata që kanë humbur jetën nga AIDS. Dita Botërore e AIDS-it është ditë për të rikujtuar se virusi HIV s’ është zhdukur – ekziston akoma nevoja për të rritur ndërgjegjësimin nga rreziku i këtij virusi, për të luftuar paragjykimet dhe për të informuar të rinjtë rreth tij”, ka shkruar Zemaj.

Ai ka shkruar edhe se “Testimi është mënyra e vetme për të zbuluar virusin HIV dhe identifikimi i hershëm ofron siguri për trajtim të suksesshëm. Testet falas dhe anonime janë në dispozicion nga institucionet tona shëndetësore”.



Postime të ngjashme

Nga viti 1986 në Kosovë u raportua për vdekjen e 51 personave si pasojë e AIDS-it


Që nga 1 dhjetori i 1988 shënohet Dita Botërore e AIDS.

Kjo ditë shënohet edhe në Kosovë, e ku Instituti Kombëtar i Shëndetësisë Publike të Kosovës (IKSHPK) ka bërë të ditur që gjatë këtij viti janë raportuar dy raste të infeksionit me HIV.

E sipas të dhënave të IKSHPK-së që nga viti 1986 e deri më tani në Kosovë janë raportuar 132 raste me HIV, ndërsa si pasojë e kësaj kanë ndërruar jetë 51 persona.

“Që nga viti 1986 deri me 1 dhjetor të vitit 2020, në Kosovë janë raportuar 132 raste me HIV. deri më tani 51 kanë ndërruar jetë si pasojë e AIDS-it. Në vitin 2020, janë raportuar 2 raste me HIV infeksion. Qendrat për Këshillim dhe Testim Vullnetar për HIV/AIDS ekzistojnë që nga viti 2003 në Kosovë dhe veprojnë në kuadër të Klinikës Infektive në QKUK, në IKSHPK gjithashtu edhe në në Ferizaj, Prizren dhe Pejë”, thuhet në njoftimin e IKSHPK-së në Ditën Botërore të AIDS.

Infeksioni me HIV është i pashërueshëm. Megjithatë, terapia efikase antiretrovirale mund ta kontrollojë virusin dhe të ndihmojë parandalimin e bartjes së infeksionit tek njerëzit tjerë.

Ndikimi i infeksionit me COVID-19 tek personat me HIV është akoma duke u hulumtuar. Personat me HIV janë të rrezikuar nga sëmundjet serioze Me kusht që kanë vlera të ulëta të qelizave imunitare CD4 dhe Me kusht që s’ marrin terapi efektive antiretrovirale.

“Kosova klasifikohet si vend me shkallë të ulët të epidemisë por me potencial të rritjes, posaçërisht në mesin e popullatës MSM. Të dhënat ekzistuese dëshmojnë se ne s’ kemi epidemi të gjeneralizuar apo të përqendruar të infeksionit HIV”, thuhet në njoftimin e IKSHPK-së.

ndërsa deri në fund të vitit 2019, rreth 38 milionë njerëz ishin me HIV. Gjatë vitit 2019 raportohet se kanë ndërruar jetë 690.000 njerëz me HIV për shkak të mungesës së shërbimeve për HIV, ndërsa 1.7 milionë të tjerë janë infektuar.

Llogaritet se rreth 62% të infeksioneve të reja në mbarë botën i takojnë grup moshave 15-49 vjeç dhe grupacioneve të veçanta (narkomanët, punëtorët e seksit, transgjinorët, të burgosurit, meshkujt që kanë seks me meshkuj).

Po ashtu llogaritet se 1 në 5 njerëz që jetojnë me HIV s’ e dijnë se janë të infektuar.

Ndikimi i infeksionit me COVID-19 tek personat me HIV është akoma duke u hulumtuar. Personat me HIV janë të rrezikuar nga sëmundjet serioze Me kusht që kanë vlera të ulta të qelizave imunitare CD4 dhe Me kusht që s’ marrin terapi efektive antiretrovirale.

Kampanja për vitin 2020 është me moton:

“Ta përfundojmë epideminë e HIV/AIDS-it: Qëndrueshmëri dhe Ndikim”

Mesazhet kryesore dhe thirrja për veprim:

• Përtëritja e luftës për t’i dhënë fund AIDS-it; është koha për të investuar, përtërirë dhe integruar shërbimet e HIV me kujdesin e gjerë shëndetësor.

• Përdorimi i shërbimeve inovative të HIV-it, për të siguruar kujdes të vazhdueshëm për personat me HIV gjatë pandemisë, p.sh. përshkrimi i terapisë për disa muaj.

• Angazhimi, përkrahja dhe mbrojtja e punëtorëve shëndetësor dhe atyre në komunitet gjatë ofrimit të shërbimeve për HIV dhe COVID-19.

• Dhënia e përparësisë grupeve vulnerabile. Ofrimi i vazhdueshëm i shërbimeve të HIV-it gjatë COVID-19 për fëmijët, adoleshentët dhe grupacionet e veçanta.

COVID-19 dhe HIV

Personat me HIV duhet të jenë shumë të kujdesshëm në respektimin e masave të përgjithshme për të shmangur infeksionin me COVID-19:

• Bartja e maskës,

• Mbajtja e distancës fizike,

• Mbajtja e higjienës personale dhe ambientit,

• Evitimi i udhëtimeve dhe tubimeve të panevojshme.

Në veçanti, duhet parapregaditur për infeksion të mundshëm, duke:

• Siguruar furnizim të mjaftueshëm (30-90 ditë) me barna për HIV.

• Vazhduar të merrni barnat për HIV, me që ato ndihmojnë që ta ruani sistemin imunitar.

• Mirëmbajtur stilin e shëndoshë të jetës (të ushqyerit e shëndetshëm, gjumë të mjaftueshëm së paku 8 orë në ditë dhe largimi nga stresi).

Solidariteti dhe ndarja e përgjegjësisë ndihmojnë ta luftojmë coronavirusin, përfundojmë epideminë e AIDS-it dhe garantojmë të drejtën për shëndet për të gjithë.



Postime të ngjashme

Kosova s’ bën teste për HIV gjatë pandemisë


Ditën Ndërkombëtare të AIDS-it, më 1 dhjetor, Kosova e shënon pa asnjë rast të diagnostikuar me virusin HIV (virusi i mungesës së imunitetit) këtë vit. Kjo për shkak faktit se që nga muaji mars, kur u paraqitën rastet e para me koronavirus në Kosovë, asnjë person s’ është testuar për virusin HIV në Klinikën Infektive.

Këtë e thotë për Radion Evropa e Lirë, Alban Gjonbalaj, udhëheqës i Asociacionit kosovar të personave që jetojnë me HIV në Kosovë, i cili njëherësh i prekur me këtë virus.

Masat kundër COVID-19 po e “kontrollojnë” situatën

Infektologu Murat Mehmeti, i cili trajton personat e infektuar me HIV në Klinikën Infektive, pranoi se për shkak të pandemisë ka pasur ngecje sa i përket analizave rutinore, por beson se kjo gjë do të ndryshojë në muajin dhjetor, varësisht prej situatës epidemiologjike.

“Ajo që na ka ndalur deri tash është se Me kusht që vonohen analizat, s’ është telashe. Më shumë rrezikohen Me kusht që vinë në klinikë, ku tashmë ka të infektuar me koronavirus”, thotë Mehmeti.

Sipas tij, personat me HIV s’ kanë pasur nevojë për hospitalizim gjatë pandemisë, ndërsa ata persona të konfirmuar me HIV, janë furnizuar me terapi, të cilën e përdorin në shtëpi.

“s’ kanë pasur ndonjë telashe asnjëri”, tha Mehmeti.

Procedura për kryerjen e analizave për HIV bëhet me anë të Klinikës Infektive në Institutin Kombëtar të Shëndetësisë Publike të Kosovës.

Mikrobiologu nga ky institut, Xhevat Jakupi tha se laboratori është në dispozicion dhe i gatshëm për analiza, por shton se Klinika Infektive s’ ka dërguar mostra për shkak të mbingarkesës.

“s’ kanë pasur mundësi që të mbledhin mostrat nga personat që jetojnë me HIV. Ne jemi të gatshëm si Institut dhe laboratori është në dispozicion dhe ka material për ta kryer punën”, tha ai.

Alban Gjonbalaj thotë se në muajin mars janë kryer testimet e fundit për HIV, kur s’ është regjistruar asnjë rast.

“trajtim ka pasur, por kemi pasur një lloj alarmi që do të mund të mbetemi pa terapi. Mirëpo, për fat të mirë, është bërë furnizimi dhe s’ kemi pasur mungesë të barnave. Aktualisht s’ e kemi një lloj ilaçi dhe besoj se shpejtë do të furnizohemi”, thotë Gjonbalaj.

“Shpresojmë të përmirësohet gjendja me pandeminë, pasi që pandemia e ka marrë rëndësinë e sëmundjeve dhe problem ynë ka qenë si nën hije”, shtoi ai.

Virusi HIV vazhdon të jetë problemi global shëndetësor i cili, sipas Organizatës Botërore të Shëndetësisë (OBSH) ka marrë gati 33 milionë jetë deri më tani, ndërsa 38 milionë persona jetojnë me të. Falë terapisë dhe trajtimit efektiv, infeksioni me HIV është bërë gjendja kronike më e menaxhueshme. Ky virus, sulmon sistemin imunitar dhe e dobëson mbrojtjen e njerëzve kundër shumë infeksioneve dhe disa llojeve të kancerit.

Aktualisht në Kosovë jetojnë 40 persona të identifikuar me këtë virus, ndërsa rasti i parë ishte raportuar në vitin 1986.

HIV s’ duhet të injorohet për shkak të pandemisë

Qendra Evropiane për Parandalimin dhe Kontrollin e Sëmundjeve (ECDC) dhe OBSH-ja më 26 nëntor kanë bërë thirrje për më shumë testime ndaj HIV-it, pasi shumë njerëz të infektuar me këtë virus, që shkakton sëmundjen AIDS, po diagnostikohen shumë vonë. Kjo, sipas këtyre organizatave po ndodh veçanërisht në Evropën Lindore dhe Azinë Qendrore. Sipas ECDC-së, diagnostikimi i vonshëm kontribuon në transmetimin e vazhdueshëm të HIV-it dhe parandalon njerëzit e infektuar të marrin trajtimin që mund t’iu shpëtojë jetën.

Drejtoresha e ECDC-së, Andrea Ammon, tha se vendet s’ duhet të injorojnë çështje tjera si HIV/AIDS për shkak të pandemisë së COVID-19.

“Një diagnostikim i hershëm i HIV është një përparësi urgjente”, tha ajo.

HIV edhe COVID-19 pozitiv në Kosovë

Ndryshe, dy persona që janë edhe me HIV/AIDS janë infektuar me koronavirus. Kështu thonë infektologët në vend, sipas të cilëve njëri ka qenë i shtrirë në Klinikë Infektive të Qendrës Klinike Universitare, derisa tjetri është trajtuar në shtëpi me rekomandim të mjekëve.

Njëri prej tyre është edhe Berati (identiteti i vërtetë i të cilit është i njohur për redaksinë), i cili në muajin maj ka rezultuar pozitiv me COVID-19.

Ai rrëfen se sa ka qenë e vështirë ta përballojë sëmundjen COVID-19, duke qenë edhe i infektuar me HIV.

“Kur kam kuptuar që jam infektuar me koronavirus, më është përkujtuar frikën që e kam pasur kur kam kuptuar për infektimin me HIV. Mandej filloi frika tjetër, mos po i infektoj familjarët, pasi isha në shtëpi gjithë kohës”, tha ai.

“Sigurisht fillimi ka qenë i lodhshëm, me dhimbje në të gjithë trupit, humbje të shijes dhe aromës, e që ishte një ndjesi jo e këndshme. Jam ushqyer duke mos e shijuar ushqimin. Dhe kjo ka ndikuar që të humb peshë, normalisht. Por, që s’ ka pasur ndonjë pasojë, të themi, ndonëse unë jetoj edhe me virusin HIV”, shtoi ai.

Drejtoresha ekzekutive UNAIDS, Winnie Byanyina, në mesazhin e saj për Ditën Botërore të AIDS-it, bëri thirrje që komunitetet të forcohen, duke shtuar se teksa bota po lufton COVID-19, s’ mund të bëjë gabimin, duke lënë anash luftën kundër HIV-it, pasi shtoi se miliona njerëz në vendet në zhvillim vdesin, teksa janë në pritje të trajtimit.

Ajo shtoi se deri më tani mbi 12 milionë njerëz janë duke pritur që të marrin trajtimin për virusin HIV, andaj Byanyina tha se kjo është arsyeja që UNAIDS “ka qenë avokuese e fuqishme për vaksinën kundër koronavirusit”./REL



Postime të ngjashme

Gati 40 vjet pas shfaqjes së SIDËS



Kanë kaluar afro dyzet vjet që kur një sëmundje e re nisi të shfaqej në Shtetet e Bashkuara. Më vonë ajo do të bëhej e njohur me emrin SIDA, sindroma e mungesës së imunitetit të fituar. Sot në botë ka më shumë se 38 milionë njerëz që jetojnë me virusin HIV, i cili shkakton SIDËN. Me rastin e 1 dhjetorit, Ditës Botërore të SIDË-s, ju sjellim një vështrim rreth kësaj sëmundjeje, për të cilën akoma s’ ka një vaksinë.

Virusi u njoftua për herë të parë në një raport të Qendrave amerikane për Kontrollin e Sëmundjeve, botuar më 5 qershor 1981. Në atë kohë sindroma u përshkrua si një kombinim i pazakontë i pneumonisë me disa kancere të rralla kryesisht tek homoseksualët amerikanë në Los Anxhelos.

Studiuesi kryesor i SIDË-s, Robert Gallo kujton frikën dhe diskriminimin që u përhap shpejt kur numri i të vdekurve nisi të rritej.

“Ishte një ndjenjë misteri, frike, një paragjykim në rritje,” tha ai për agjencinë Associated Press në vitin 2006.

“Virusi i ngjan një topi golfi me një tufë shkopinjsh të vegjël që dalin prej tij. Shkopinjtë hyjnë në bashkëveprim me molekula të caktuara në sipërfaqen e qelizës që infektojnë. Mënyra se si virusi HIV futet brenda qelizës është një proces i komplikuar, i cili sot shpjegohet deri në detaje molekulare,” thotë shkencëtari.

Fillimisht u etiketua si ‘kancer i homoseksualëve’, por më vonë, kur u vërejt se prej tij prekeshin edhe personat heteroseksualë, stigma filloi të bjerë.

Gallo dhe kolegët e tij kishin identifikuar më parë retrovirusë që mund të shkaktonin leuçemi tek njerëzit. Ata ishin ndër të parët që argumentuan se shkaku i SIDË-s së gjetur tek një pacient në Institutin Pasteur të Parisit nga mjeku Luc Montagnier, ishte pikërisht virusi HIV.

Virusi, i cili përhapet nëpër lëngjet e trupit, u përhap shpejt në botë, duke prekur shpesh gratë e ekspozuara, fëmijët e tyre, meshkujt homoseksualë, hemofilikët dhe përdoruesit e drogave që merren me shiringë.

Shumë qeveri dhe organizata nisën programe edukimi për të paralajmëruar njerëzit mbi përhapjen e virusit.

Ndonjëherë këto shkaktonin frikë dhe një ndjenjë turpi tek njerëzit më të rrezikuar.

Alex Sparrowhawk, i cili jeton në Mançester të Anglisë dhe ka virusin HIV, thotë se qëndrimet e njerëzve kanë ndryshuar, por paragjykimet vazhdojnë.

“Shumë njerëz të atij brezi mbajnë mend reklamat, fushatat që bëheshin. Edhe sot, kur flasim për këto gjëra, njerëzit e kuptojnë menjëherë se përse e kemi fjalën. Kjo fushatë edukimi ndoshta ishte e mirë për kohën. Por keqkuptimet e viteve ‘80 akoma ekzistojnë në shumë aspekte”.

Në vitin 1986, zyrtarët amerikanë të shëndetësisë njoftuan se një ilaç eksperimental i quajtur AZT do të vihej në dispozicion të mijëra pacientëve me SIDË.

AZT, ishte ilaçi i parë që tregoi se mund të ndihmonte njerëzit me HIV, virusin që shkakton SIDË-n.

Edhe pse një ilaç jo shumë i fuqsihëm, AZT-ja çoi në krijimin e një morie barnash të tjera dhe në nocionin e trajtimit me kombinime ilaçesh, që sot përdoren për HIV-n, tuberkulozin dhe sëmundje të tjera.

Zoti Sparrowhawk thotë se trajtimet moderne kanë bërë që njerëzit të cilët sot diagnostikohen me HIV të kenë një jetë të shëndetshme.

Shkencëtarët edhe sot vazhdojnë punën për të gjetur një vaksinë kundër virusit HIV.

Me rastin e Ditës Botërore të SIDË-s, OKB-ja po vë në dukje kërcënimin që pandemia globale e koronavirusit përbën ndaj njerëzve që jetojnë me virusin HIV.

Sipas agjencisë së OKB-së për SIDË-n, ndikimi i pandemisë së tanishme mund të rezultojë në rreth 69 000 deri në 148 000 vdekje më shumë tek personat e infektuar me HIV.

Zoti Sparrowhawk thotë se për shkak të pandemisë shumica e takimeve me mjekun janë zhvendosur në internet dhe kjo s’ është diçka e mirë për të gjithë ata që jetojnë me virusin HIV.

“Unë shkoj në spital çdo gjashtë muaj. Takimi im i parë këtë vit u bë me telefon. Ilaçet më dërgoheshin me postë. Por kjo s’ është e njëjta gjë sikur të ulesh ballë për ballë me mjekun,” thotë ai.

Afrika e Jugut ka 7.7 milionë njerëz me HIV, numri më i madh në botë. 62% e tyre marrin ilaçe antiretrovirale që e mbajnë pasiv virusin dhe parandalojnë transmetimin e tij.

Në Afrikën e Jugut njerëzit me HIV që preken nga COVID-19, kanë dy herë më shumë gjasa të vdesin, sesa të tjerët.

Në Shtetet e Bashkuara, infeksionet vjetore me HIV kanë rënë me më shumë se dy të tretat që nga kulmi i epidemisë në mes të viteve 1980. Numri i infeksioneve të reja ka qëndruar i pandryshuar vitet e fundit.

Rreth 1.2 milionë amerikanë kanë HIV, por më shumë se 40% e tyre s’ e dinë që janë të infektuar.

Postime të ngjashme

Undiagnosed HIV rising in Eastern Europe, Central Asia: agencies


HIV
Scanning electromicrograph of an HIV-infected T cell. Credit: NIAID

The EU’s disease control agency and the WHO on Thursday called for better HIV testing to spot cases early following rising undiagnosed cases especially in Eastern Europe, Russia and Central Asia.

Early detection of the virus that causes AIDS mitigates the impact on the patient and prevents further spread.

A report by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and the World Health Organization’s (WHO) regional office for Europe showed that in 2019, more than 136,000 cases of HIV were diagnosed across the WHO European region, with 80 percent of cases in its eastern parts.

The WHO’s European Region comprises 53 countries and includes Russia and several countries in Central Asia.

The report did however not include data from member states Andorra, Belgium, Monaco, North Macedonia, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.

Roughly half of the European HIV cases were diagnosed at a late stage of infection, “when the immune system has already started to fail,” the agencies said, calling it “a sign that testing strategies in the region are not working properly to diagnose HIV early.”

The authors of the report added that late diagnosis increased the risk of “ill health, death and onward HIV transmission,” and called for new strategies to improve testing.

“Despite the focus on COVID-19 right now, we must not lose sight of other public health issues like HIV. Earlier diagnosis of HIV is an urgent priority,” ECDC director Andrea Ammon said in a statement.

Newly diagnosed cases in the region “increased by 19 percent over the last decade,” the report noted, and “the number of people living in the region with undiagnosed HIV is increasing.”

In contrast, in the area covered by the ECDC—which includes the EU plus Iceland, Lichtenstein and Norway—the number of new yearly diagnoses instead declined by nine percent, and the proportion of those living with undiagnosed HIV was estimated to be decreasing.

The main mode of transmission also varied across the region, with sexual transmission between men being the most common in the ECDC’s region, while heterosexual sex and intravenous drug use were the most common modes in the WHO’s eastern region.

The report listed those countries as Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan.


One in seven with HIV in Europe unaware of infection: study


© 2020 AFP

Citation:
Undiagnosed HIV rising in Eastern Europe, Central Asia: agencies (2020, November 26)
retrieved 27 November 2020
from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2020-11-undiagnosed-hiv-eastern-europe-central.html

This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no
part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.



Postime të ngjashme

Rritet përdorimi i antibiotikëve në pandemi


Përdorimi i antibiotikëve, shpeshherë pa nevojë, ka bërë që rezistenca ndaj tyre të konsiderohet si sfida kryesore globale e shëndetësisë në shekullin XXI, thotë mikrobiologu Lul Raka për Radio Evropa e Lirë.

Ai shton se në këtë mes s’ bën përjashtim Kosova, ku mikroorganizmat, indikatorë të rezistencës ndaj këtij ilaçi, janë dy deri në pesë herë më të lartë sesa mesatarja evropiane për të gjithë antibiotikët e krahasuar.

“Rezistenca antimikrobike është sfidë edhe për shëndetësinë kosovare. Problemet më të mëdha të kësaj fushë në vendin tonë janë: përdorimi i panevojshëm i antibiotikëve, shitja në barnatore pa recetë të mjekut dhe presioni nga kompanitë farmaceutike”, thotë Raka.

Ndryshe, Kosova ka ligj që e ndalon blerjen e barnave pa recetë, por ky ligj s’ është zbatuar kurrë. Kështu thotë kryetari i Odës së Farmacistëve të Kosovës, Arianit Jakupi. Sipas tij, përderisa në vend vazhdon dhënia e antibiotikëve pa recetë nëpër barnatore, kjo paraqet shqetësim të madh. Ai shtoi se viti 2020 është konsideruar si vit me përdorim të shtuar të antibiotikëve të përshkruar, por edhe të pa përshkruar nga mjekët.

“Ka disa vite që Kosova i raporton të dhënat rreth konsumit të antibiotikëve në Organizatën Botërore të Shëndetësisë e që është rrjeti i rezistencës antimikrobike dhe po ashtu bëhen analizat e rezistencës, pra punohet në dy drejtime në konsum dhe në regjistrim mikrobike. Sipas të dhënave që nga viti 2002, kemi pasur një rënie në përdorim, por s’ ka qenë rënie e kënaqshme. Në vitin e fundit është shtuar përdorimi, sidomos në kohë pandemie, që kanë treguar disa të dhëna premtuese të pacientëve, por që këto të dhëna s’ janë përmbledhur që të shihet saktë efekti”, tha Jakupi.

Në përpjekje që të zbatohet ligji përkatës, i cili ndalon shitjen e barnave pa udhëzim apo recetë të mjekut, Ministria e Shëndetësisë ka miratuar një plan veprimi për ‘Rezistencën Antimikrobike’, i cili do të shërbejë si një udhërrëfyes për të gjitha spitalet publike, partnerët shëndetësorë, veterinarë e mjedisorë, për të ulur rezistencën ndaj antibiotikëve dhe për të rritur sigurinë shëndetësore të popullatës.

Por, mikrobiologu Raka shton se përkundër përpjekjeve për të ulur përdorimin e panevojshëm të antibiotikëve, ka pasur pak rezultat.

“Nga viti 2011 deri sot, Kosova ka shënuar një ulje të ndjeshme në konsumin total të antibiotikëve në vlerë prej 25 për qind. Megjithatë, akoma jemi ndër shtetet me përdorimin më të madh të cefalosporinave, e sidomos të antibiotikut ceftriakson”, tha ai.

Në pandemi rritet përdorimi i antibiotikëve

Përdorimi i antibiotikëve gjatë pandemisë ka shënuar rritje në gjithë globin. Në disa raste të rralla 4-8 për qind në komunitet e deri në 15 për qind në njësitë e kujdesit intensiv, mund të ketë bashkë infeksion të COVID-19 me infeksione tjera bakterore, ose infeksion sekondar me baktere e fungje, në të cilat kërkohet trajtim me antibiotikë.

Arsyetimi tjetër i përdorimit empirik të antibiotikëve gjatë pandemisë është në kapacitetet e mangëta diagnostike të cilat e shtyjnë mjekun ta mbulojë pacientin edhe me terapi me antibiotikë. Shkalla e përdorimit të antibiotikëve në disa studime shkon prej 60-90 për qind, tha Lul Raka.

ndërkohë, farmacistët në vend thonë se me gjithë blerjen e madhe të antibiotikëve pa recetë, ndër vite ka pasur një vetëdijesim të qytetarëve dhe shitja e tyre ka shënuar rënie.

Shkumbin Jusufi farmacist, duke folur për Radion Evropa e Lirë, tha se rritje të shitjes së antibiotikëve ka pasur gjatë kohës së pandemisë.

“Ka disa vite që ka një rënie. Por, në kohën e pandemisë po kërkohet sidomos një lloj antibiotiku ‘Azomicin’, e që kemi pasur raste që e kërkojnë pacientët edhe pa recetë. Ky lloj antibiotiku është i rrezikshëm të merret pa recetë. Ndonëse shumica për këtë lloj vinë me recetë të mjekut. Ndryshe, në përgjithësi është ngrit vetëdija e pacientëve, po ka akoma që kërkojnë pa recetë”, tha ai.

E qytetarët thonë se pa ndonjë problem në barnatore blejnë antibiotikë. Njëra nga to është Arlinda Shala, qytetare nga Prishtina, e cila tregon se ka problem me anginë në fyt dhe shpesh përdor antibiotik, por që atë e merr jo gjithmonë me recetë.

“Po kom pas rast kur kam blerë antibiotik pa recetë. Gjatë kohës së pandemisë unë s’ kam dashur të shkoj te mjeku, pasi problemin me fyt e kam kronik, më bëhet anginë dhe vetëm shkoj e marrë antibiotikun, pasi e di se cilin antibiotik ma përshkruajnë dhe shkoj e blej të njëjtin në barnatore”, tha ajo.

Megjithëkëtë, Raka shton se rezistenca antimikrobike është një ndër sfidat kryesore globale të shëndetit publik që përcillet me shkallë të lartë të sëmundshmërisë, vdekshmërisë dhe kostos. Në Evropë, barra e infeksioneve nga mikrobet rezistente është e barabartë me gripin, tuberkulozin dhe HIV/AIDS së bashku.

Postime të ngjashme

Haradinaj tha se s’ do të lejoj futjen e Vuçiqit në Kosovë pa kërkuar falje për krimet e bëra – reagon Daçiq


Ministri i Jashtëm serb, Ivica Daçiq ka reaguar pasi Ministrja e Punëve të Jashtme, Meliza Haradinaj-Stublla, ia ka bërë me dije presidentit të Serbisë, Aleksandar Vuçiq, se s’ do ketë leje për futje në Kosovë, derisa shteti i tij të kërkojë falje për krimet e bëra ndaj shqiptarëve.

Daçiq tha se deklaratat e ministres janë kulmi i vrazhdësisë dhe hipokrizisë.

“Deklaratat e të ashtuquajturës Ministres e Punëve të Jashtme të Kosovës se presidentit serb Aleksandar Vuçiq do t’i ndalohet të hyjë në Kosovë derisa ai të kërkojë falje për gjenocidin janë kulmi i vrazhdësisë dhe hipokrizisë së Prishtinës”, ka thënë Daçiq për ministren Haradinaj-Stublla.

Daçiq tha se me ndalimin e hyrjes së Vuçiqit, Kosova shkeli edhe marrëveshjet e Brukselit dhe të Washingtonit, shkruan Tanjug.

“Kjo s’ është vetëm një shkelje e marrëveshjes së Brukselit, por edhe marrëveshjes së Washingtonit, sipas së cilës Prishtina pranoi që të hyjë në Mini-Shengen, e cila nënkupton lëvizjen e lirë të njerëzve, mallrave dhe kapitalit”, tha ai.

Pretendimet per HIV, maltretimet e dhuna brenda Burgut te Lipjanit rrefehen dy ish te burgosura

The post Haradinaj tha se s’ do të lejoj futjen e Vuçiqit në Kosovë pa kërkuar falje për krimet e bëra – reagon Daçiq appeared first on Insajderi.

Postime të ngjashme

American Medical Association, the nation’s largest group of doctors, deems racism a ‘public health threat’


health
Credit: CC0 Public Domain

As the coronavirus pandemic continues to threaten hard-hit minority communities, the nation’s largest association of doctors has passed a policy that recognizes racism as a public health threat.

The new policy recognizes racism as a social determinant of health and highlights the health disparities and lack of access to health care that have significantly hindered good health in Black and other historically marginalized communities in the U.S.

The American Medical Association’s House of Delegates—which includes 600-plus members from every medical specialty—released a statement last week that describes three tiers of racism detailed in the policy: systemic, cultural and interpersonal. Each pose specific barriers to quality medical care and good health and hinder the advancement of health equity, the group wrote.

The AMA also implored its medical professionals to identify strategies to mitigate racism’s health impacts, teach future doctors about racism in medical school curricula and support policy development for researching the issue.

Baltimore-based board member Dr. Willarda Edwards chaired the AMA Task Force on Health Equity and lobbied for action that led to the creation of the AMA Center on Health Equity last year. She said the AMA’s new policy is a continuation of those efforts—and the result of a confluence of racial unrest amid protests against police brutality and the pandemic.

“Essentially, with COVID, the Band-Aid was ripped off our health care system,” said Dr. Edwards, an internist. “And the disparities were so blatant as we see more Black and brown and Native American communities hard-hit by COVID. And we just said, ‘This has got to stop.’ We’ve got to be able to do something more than just talk about the stats.”

She’s referring to the disproportionate impact certain illnesses like heart disease and diabetes have on Black and Hispanic communities. But she’s also talking about unconscious bias that has influenced medical treatment for minority patients.

“We have found that there has been a real evidence of disparity with respect to the way people of color are treated in the medical world,” she said, citing C-sections performed on minority women more than white women, and less pain medication prescribed for young minority men and women.

Last week, the AMA also officially recognized race as a social construct rather than a biological one, nodding to a vast net of socioeconomic factors that come along with it and impact health and well-being.

Dr. Otis Brawley, a renowned oncologist and professor of oncology and epidemiology at Johns Hopkins University, has been studying health disparities and treatments in Black people and minorities for three decades.

Perceiving race as a mere biological factor diminishes its far-reaching implications, he said.

“It takes the emphasis away from the fact that a substantial number of those people have poor outcomes because they either don’t get treatment or they have poor quality treatment,” Brawley said.

He cited several examples from numerous studies he’s written, including one study that explores breast cancer treatment in Black women patients treated at military hospitals.

He said the results showed “Black women treated for breast cancer lost two-thirds of disparity that Black women treated in the real world of the United States had. There was a disparity still between Blacks and whites—but two-thirds of it was gone.”

“We need to get good care for Black people,” he continued.

Ravi Perry, political science chair of HBCU Howard University, said the AMA’s announcement could be a significant catalyst in the progress of national racial dialogue and policy development to fight disparities.

“I think it has the potential to be a game changer—just like it was when homosexuality was ruled no longer a mental health disorder (by the American Psychological Association) … that began a long trek to justice,” he said.

Perry, a member of the American Lung Association’s COVID-19 Advisory Panel, has contracted COVID-19 himself. He’s signed up for clinical trials for the vaccine and lends his perspective on the panel about vaccine distribution among the minority communities he is a part of and studies, such as people with HIV.

“The fact that the scientific community has said that racism is in fact a public health matter—what that suggest is that this is no longer a grassroots political talking point,” he said. “It’s now a public policy matter backed up by scientific verification.”


Black Americans suffer more from heart disease: The AHA wants to change that


©2020 USA Today
Distributed by Tribune Content Agency, LLC

Citation:
American Medical Association, the nation’s largest group of doctors, deems racism a ‘public health threat’ (2020, November 24)
retrieved 24 November 2020
from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2020-11-american-medical-association-nation-largest.html

This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no
part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.



Postime të ngjashme

Diabetes set to devastate India’s metropolitan cities, with more than half of


diabetes
Credit: CC0 Public Domain

Disturbing new research published in Diabetologia (the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes) shows that more than half of men (55%) and some two thirds (65%) of women currently aged 20 years in India will likely develop diabetes in their life time, with most of those cases (around 95%) likely to be type 2 diabetes (T2D). The research is from a team of authors in India, the UK and the U.S., led by Dr. Shammi Luhar, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, UK.

India already has a significant health burden caused by diabetes: estimates suggest 77 million adults currently have diabetes and this number is expected to almost double to 134 million by 2045. Urbanisation, decreasing diet quality and decreased levels of physical activity are all contributing to this hidden epidemic. Since urban centres are continuing to grow rapidly across the country, the authors, in this new research, aimed to estimate the probability of a metropolitan (urban-based) Indian of any age or body mass index (BMI) developing diabetes in their lifetime.

The data for the study came from using age-, sex- and BMI-specific incidence rates of diabetes in urban India taken from the Centre for Cardiometabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (2010-2018); age-, sex- and urban-specific rates of mortality from period lifetables reported by the Government of India (2014); and prevalence of diabetes from the Indian Council for Medical Research INdia DIABetes study (2008-2015).

The authors estimate that lifetime risk of developing diabetes in 20-year-old men and women free of diabetes today is 56% and 65%, respectively. Women generally had a higher lifetime risk across the lifespan. Remaining lifetime risk of developing diabetes declined with age: the authors estimated that for those currently aged 60 years and currently free of diabetes, around 38% of women and 28% of men would go on to develop diabetes.

Obesity had a substantial impact on these projections. Lifetime risk was highest among obese metropolitan Indians: 86% among 20-year-old women and 87% among men. People with lower BMI had considerably higher diabetes-free life expectancy: obese 20-year-olds were estimated to have around half (46-52%) of their remaining life years free from diabetes. However, those with normal or underweight BMI were projected to live out most of their remaining years (80-85%) diabetes-free.

The authors say: “The remarkably high lifetime risk of developing diabetes and the low diabetes-free life expectancy in India’s metropolitan cities, especially for individuals with high BMI, implies that interventions targeting the incidence of diabetes may be of paramount importance moving forward.”

They note that metropolitan Indians at every age and BMI have an alarmingly high probability of developing diabetes compared with results from high income countries, and that proactive efforts to prevent diabetes in metropolitan cities are urgently needed, given the rapid increase in urban obesogenic environments across the country. In addition to these risk factors, Indians and other South Asian populations already have a relatively high predisposition to developing diabetes at both lower ages (up to a decade earlier) and lower BMIs when compared with white European populations.

One study from the U.S., using data from 2000-2011, reported a lifetime risk diabetes of 40% among men and women aged 20 years from the general population. The authors say: “Our new estimates from India are much closer to estimates of lifetime risk of diabetes of 20-year olds among the black and Hispanic populations in the U.S. (above 50%), groups considered at a higher risk of developing diabetes than the general population.”

Dr. Luhar says: “Such high probabilities of developing diabetes will have severely negative implications for India’s already strained health system and also out-of-pocket expenditure on diabetes treatment by patients, unless diabetes is immediately acknowledged for what it is: one of the most important threats to public health in India.”

Professor Viswanathan Mohan of the Madras Diabetes Research Foundation in Chennai and co-author of the paper added: “Despite these very high predicted lifetime risks of diabetes, it is possible to prevent or postpone diabetes by effective lifestyle modification, such as following a healthy diet, by increasing physical activity and reducing body weight in those who are obese or overweight.”

Professor Nikhil Tandon from the Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, All India Institute of Medical Sciences in New Delhi, and co-author of the paper also added: “We need policy and investment with clearly spelt out targets and commitments to meet by 2030. Perhaps an aspirational target of ’90-90-90′ (90% of people with diabetes detected, 90% of those detected treated, and 90% of those treated controlled), is imminently needed. Such a target could operate in the same way as the 90-90-90 targets introduced some years ago for HIV, which has since been replaced by even more ambitious 95-95-95 targets.”


Consumer health: Alcohol, tobacco and diabetes


More information:
Shammi Luhar et al. Lifetime risk of diabetes in metropolitan cities in India, Diabetologia (2020). DOI: 10.1007/s00125-020-05330-1

Citation:
Diabetes set to devastate India’s metropolitan cities, with more than half of (2020, November 23)
retrieved 23 November 2020
from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2020-11-diabetes-devastate-india-metropolitan-cities.html

This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no
part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.



Postime të ngjashme

2010 to 2018 saw decrease in rate of death for people with HIV


2010 to 2018 saw decrease in rate of death for people with HIV

(HealthDay)—From 2010 to 2018, there was a 36.6 percent decrease in the rate of death among persons with diagnosed HIV (PWDH), according to a Vital Signs report published in the Nov. 20 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

Karin A. Bosh, Ph.D., from the CDC in Atlanta, and colleagues examined age-adjusted death rates per 1,000 PWDH during 2010 to 2018 using data from the National HIV Surveillance System for persons aged 13 years and older.

The researchers found that death rates decreased by 36.6 percent overall during 2010 to 2018 (from 19.4 to 12.3 per 1,000 PWDH). HIV-related death rates decreased 48.4 percent during 2010 to 2017 (from 9.1 to 4.7), while there was an 8.6 percent decrease in non-HIV-related deaths (from 9.3 to 8.5). During 2017, the rates of HIV-related deaths were highest by race/ethnicity among persons of multiple races and Black/African American persons (7.0 and 5.6, respectively), followed by Whites and Hispanic/Latinos (3.9 and 3.9, respectively). The highest and lowest HIV-related death rates were seen in the South and Northeast (6.0 and 3.2, respectively).

“Deaths caused by HIV infection have likely decreased because of improvements in diagnosing infections and in treatment and medical care,” the authors write. “Diagnosing HIV infection early, treating it promptly, and maintaining access to high-quality care and treatment over a lifetime can improve life expectancy and reduce differences in rates of deaths across all populations.”


Increases in suicide rates in young adults from 2000 to 2018


More information:
Abstract/Full Text

Copyright © 2020 HealthDay. All rights reserved.

Citation:
2010 to 2018 saw decrease in rate of death for people with HIV (2020, November 20)
retrieved 21 November 2020
from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2020-11-decrease-death-people-hiv.html

This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no
part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.



Postime të ngjashme

Antimicrobial resistance as dangerous as pandemic: WHO


coronavirus
Credit: Pixabay/CC0 Public Domain

The World Health Organization warned Friday that growing antimicrobial resistance is every bit as dangerous as the coronavirus pandemic—and threatens to reverse a century of medical progress.

WHO chief Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus called the issue “one of the greatest health threats of our time”.

Resistance is when bugs become immune to existing drugs—antibiotic, antiviral or antifungal treatments—rendering minor injuries and common infections potentially deadly.

Resistance has grown in recent years due to overuse of such drugs in humans and also in farm animals.

“Antimicrobial resistance may not seem as urgent as a pandemic but it is just as dangerous,” Tedros told a virtual press conference.

“It threatens to unwind a century of medical progress and leave us defenceless against infections that today can be treated easily,” he said.

The WHO said antimicrobial resistance was endangering food security, economic development and the planet’s ability to fight diseases.

Resistance has led to increased health care costs, hospital admissions, treatment failures, severe illnesses and deaths, the UN health agency said.

The WHO joined forces with the Food and Agriculture Organization and with the World Organisation for Animal Health to launch a new group to advocate for urgent action to combat the threat.

The One Health Global Leaders Group on Antimicrobial Resistance will bring together heads of government, company chief executives and civil society leaders.

The group is co-chaired by Prime Ministers Sheikh Hasina of Bangladesh and Mia Mottley of Barbados.

“We need worldwide coordinated actions to monitor the nature of infections, to implement required control measures and raise global awareness against the widespread use of antibiotics,” Hasina said.

Death toll warning

Discovered in the 1920s, antibiotics have saved tens of millions of lives by seeing off bacterial diseases such as pneumonia, tuberculosis and meningitis.

But over the decades, bacteria have learned to fight back, building resistance to the same drugs that once reliably vanquished them—turning into so-called “superbugs”.

The International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers and Associations said superbugs were already taking an heavy toll.

“About 700,000 people globally die each year due to antimicrobial resistance,” the IFPMA said in a statement welcoming the new group.

“Without strong action to ensure appropriate use of existing antibiotics, as well as new and better treatments, that figure could rise to 10 million by 2050.”

Tedros said that while antibiotics are a key focus, antimicrobial resistance also included resistance to medicines for HIV, malaria and neglected tropical diseases.

The COVID-19 pandemic was a “stark reminder” that human health cannot be advanced while disregarding the health of animals and the environment, he added.

The novel coronavirus has killed at least 1.36 million people since the outbreak emerged in China last December, while nearly 56.9 million cases have been registered, according to a tally from official sources compiled by AFP.

Turning to the pandemic, Tedros said more cases had been reported in the past four weeks than in the first six months, while hospitals and their intensive care units were filling up across Europe and North America.

“This week there has been more good news from vaccine trials which continues to give us hope of ending the pandemic,” he said.

“At the same time, we must continue to use the tools we have to interrupt the chains of transmission and save lives now.”


Follow the latest news on the coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak


© 2020 AFP

Citation:
Antimicrobial resistance as dangerous as pandemic: WHO (2020, November 20)
retrieved 21 November 2020
from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2020-11-antimicrobial-resistance-dangerous-pandemic.html

This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no
part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.



Postime të ngjashme

Engineered immune cells elicit broad response to HIV in mice, offering hope for vaccine


Engineered immune cells elicit broad response to HIV in mice, offering hope for vaccine
Antibodies from engineered B cells approach an HIV particle (shown in blue) to disable it. In a new study, scientists found that gene-edited B cells can generate durable protective antibody responses against HIV when activated with a vaccine. Credit: Illustration courtesy of the Voss laboratory at Scripps Research.

Unlike so many other deadly viruses, HIV still lacks a vaccine. The virus—which continues to infect millions around the world—has proven especially tricky to prevent with conventional antibodies, in part because it evolves so rapidly in the body. Any solution would require coaxing the body into producing a special type of antibody that can act broadly to defeat multiple strains of the virus at once.

This week, scientists at Scripps Research moved closer to attaining that holy grail of HIV research with a new vaccine approach that would rely on genetically engineered immune cells from the patient’s body.

In experiments involving mice, the approach successfully induced broadly neutralizing antibodies—also called bnabs—that can prevent HIV infection, says principal investigator James Voss, Ph.D., of Scripps Research. The study appears in Nature Communications.

Voss and his team showed in 2019 that it was possible to reprogram the antibody genes of the immune system’s B cells using CRISPR so the cells would produce the same broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies that have been found in rare HIV patients.

The new study shows that such engineered B cells, after being reintroduced to the body, can multiply in response to a vaccination—and mature into memory cells and plasma cells that produce high levels of protective antibodies for long periods of time in the body. The team also demonstrated that the engineered genes can be improved to make antibodies that are even more effective against the virus, using a process that normally occurs in B cells that are responding to immunization.

“This is the first time it has been shown that modified B cells can create a durable engineered antibody response in a relevant animal model,” Voss explains.

He hopes that his vaccine approach may someday prevent new HIV infections and possibly offer a functional cure to those who already have HIV/AIDS. The virus is still prevalent throughout the world, with an estimated 38 million people with the disease in 2019.

Voss notes that in humans, the starting cells to create the vaccine could be obtained easily from a simple blood draw, then engineered in the lab before being reintroduced to the patient. He and his team—including first author Deli Huang, Ph.D., Jenny Tran, Ph.D., Alex Olson, Ph.D., and graduate student Mary Tenuta—are now exploring ways to improve the technology so that it would be accessible to the greatest number of people. Because the approach relies on delivering genes to a patient’s own immune cells, this could be a significant challenge.

“People think of cell therapies as being very expensive,” Voss says. “We’re doing a lot of work towards trying to make the technology affordable as a preventative HIV vaccine or functional cure that would replace daily antiviral therapy.”


Fighting Zika? Call in the T cells


More information:
Deli Huang et al, Vaccine elicitation of HIV broadly neutralizing antibodies from engineered B cells, Nature Communications (2020). DOI: 10.1038/s41467-020-19650-8

Citation:
Engineered immune cells elicit broad response to HIV in mice, offering hope for vaccine (2020, November 19)
retrieved 20 November 2020
from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2020-11-immune-cells-elicit-broad-response.html

This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no
part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.



Postime të ngjashme

Ko-Infektion: Die Summe ist mehr als ihre Teile

Allgemeinmedizin


Infektionen mit zwei Erregern stellen in der Klinik ein großes Problem dar. Forscher aus Würzburg und Jena haben eine Technik entwickelt, die neue Einblicke in diese Prozesse liefert. Sie eignet sich auch als Frühwarnsystem.

Organ- und Stammzelltransplantationen sind heutzutage im klinischen Alltag bewährte und häufig eingesetzte Methoden. Doch auch wenn sie an spezialisierten Zentren oft durchgeführt werden, kommt es bei den Patientinnen und Patienten im Anschluss daran immer wieder zu einer Reihe schwerer Komplikationen. Unter anderem Infektionen mit Pilzen und Viren können dann den Erfolg der Therapie gefährden. Gefürchtet ist beispielsweise das gemeinsame Auftreten des Zytomegalievirus – ein zur Familie der Herpesviren gehörendes Virus – und des Pilzes Aspergillus fumigatus. Diese Kombination von Krankheitserregern stellt eine ernsthafte medizinische Bedrohung bei der Organ- und Stammzelltransplantation dar.

Wenn Viren und Pilze sich verbünden

Ein Team von Wissenschaftlern aus mehreren deutschen Forschungseinrichtungen und Kliniken hat jetzt eine neue Methode entwickelt, mit der es diese beiden Erreger und deren Interaktion sowohl untereinander als auch mit den von ihnen infizierten menschlichen Zellen unter die Lupe genommen hat. Das zentrale Ergebnis: Die Ko-Infektion mit den beiden Erregern ist mehr „als die Summe ihrer Teile“. Viren und Pilze wirken im menschlichen Organismus synergistisch zusammen und aktivieren dort einige Gene, die nur bei der gleichzeitigen Infektion mit den beiden Erregern aktiv werden.

An der Studie beteiligt waren Wissenschaftler der Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg (JMU), des Würzburger Universitätsklinikums (UKW), vom Leibniz-Institut für Naturstoff-Forschung und Infektionsbiologie in Jena sowie vom Helmholtz-Institut für RNA-basierte Infektionsforschung (HIRI) in Würzburg.

Neue Einblicke dank einer neuen Technik

„Wir haben für unsere Studie ein Verfahren namens Triple-RNA-seq entwickelt“, erklärt Alexander Westermann. Er ist Juniorprofessor am Lehrstuhl für Molekulare Infektionsbiologie I der JMU sowie Gruppenleiter am HIRI und gemeinsam mit Prof. Jürgen Löffler vom UKW einer der Hauptautoren der jetzt veröffentlichten Studie. Die Wissenschaftler haben dafür ein Verfahren weiterentwickelt, das seit etlichen Jahren fester Bestandteil der Infektionsforschung ist.

Die RNA-Sequenzierung ermöglicht es, in einem Hochdurchsatzverfahren gleichzeitig die Aktivitäten tausender Gene auf RNA-Ebene präzise zu bestimmen und damit die im Rahmen von Erkrankungen auftretenden Veränderungen zu erkennen und besser zu verstehen. Ihre Weiterentwicklung – die duale RNA-Sequenzierung – erlaubt es im Unterschied dazu, nicht nur die Genaktivität eines Krankheitserregers zu dokumentieren, sondern gleichzeitig auch die Reaktion der von ihm befallen Wirtszelle. Damit ist es möglich, komplexe Kausalketten im zeitlichen Verlauf einer Infektion nachzuvollziehen.

Forschung an Immunzellen

Und nun also die Erweiterung auf die Genexpression von drei Akteuren in ihrem Wechselspiel – die Triple-RNA-Sequenzierung. „Bislang weiß die Wissenschaft in vielen Fällen nicht, warum eine Infektion mit einem bestimmten Erreger den Betroffenen für eine Sekundärinfektion mit einem zweiten Erreger anfälliger machen kann“, erklärt Löffler, Molekularbiologe an der Medizinischen Klinik II des UKW. In solchen Fällen habe auch die duale RNA-seq nicht die gewünschten Antworten liefern können.

In ihrer Studie haben die Forscher mit der von ihnen entwickelten Triple-RNA-seq-Methode untersucht, was passiert, wenn bestimmte Zellen des Immunsystems – von Monozyten abgeleitete dendritische Zellen – sowohl mit Aspergillus fumigatus als auch mit dem humanen Zytomegalievirus infiziert sind.

Dabei konnten sie nachweisen, dass die beiden Erreger sich gegenseitig beeinflussen und damit gleichzeitig auf die Immunzelle einwirken – und das auf eine andere Weise, als es ein Erreger alleine bewirken könnte. Beispielsweise schwächte das Zytomegalievirus die durch den Pilz vermittelte Aktivierung entzündungsfördernder Signalketten ab, während Aspergillus fumigatus die virale Clearance beeinträchtigt.

Hoffnung auf einen Biomarker

Gleichzeitig hat das Team spezielle Gene in den Immunzellen identifiziert, deren Expression sich während einer gemeinsamen Infektion beider Erreger im Vergleich zu einer Einzelinfektion signifikant unterscheidet. Diese könnten somit als Biomarker für eine zeitnahe Identifizierung einer Ko-Infektion nach einer Transplantation dienen.

Die Wissenschaftler hoffen nun, dass es mitfilfe der Triple-RNA-seq-Technologie gelingt, auch andere Fälle gemeinsamer Infektionen – etwa von Viren und Bakterien – besser zu verstehen und deren häufig schwerwiegende Folgen zu verhindern. „Vielversprechende Modelle zum Verständnis, wie eine Infektion den Wirt anfälliger für einen weiteren Erreger macht, sind unter anderem bestimmte Salmonellen und das Humane Immundefizienz-Virus (HIV), Streptokokken und das Influenzavirus oder Chlamydien und das menschliche Herpesvirus“, sagt Westermann. Er selbst will allerdings in einem nächsten Schritt mit der Triple-RNA-seq-Technik Infektionen erforschen, bei denen zwei unterschiedliche Bakterienarten gemeinsam den Krankheitsverlauf beeinflussen.

Postime të ngjashme

Another side to cancer immunotherapy? Scientists investigate intratumoral B cells


Another side to cancer immunotherapy? Scientists investigate intratumoral B cells
Orange represents tumor cells displaying the HPV antigen p16, while green represents B cells with the arrows indicating germinal center-like structures. Credit: Andreas Wieland

Immunotherapies have transformed the treatment of several types of cancer over the last decade. Yet they focus on reactivating one arm of the immune system: cytotoxic T cells, which sniff out and kill tumor cells.

In a new paper in Nature, scientists at Emory Vaccine Center and Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University (Winship) report on their detailed look at B cells‘ presence inside tumors. B cells represent the other major arm of the adaptive immune system, besides T cells, and could offer opportunities for new treatments against some kinds of cancers.

“Intratumoral B cells are an area of growing interest, because several studies have now shown that they are associated with a better prognosis and longer survival,” says first author Andreas Wieland, PhD, an Instructor in Rafi Ahmed’s lab at Emory Vaccine Center. “However, nobody really knows what those B cells are specific for.”

Wieland, Ahmed and colleagues decided to concentrate on head and neck cancers that were positive for human papillomavirus (HPV), because the virus provided a defined set of tumor-associated antigens, facilitating the study of tumor-specific B cells across patients.

“Our findings open the door for harnessing this type of cancer-specific immunity in future immunotherapy applications,” says Nabil Saba, MD, director of the head and neck medical oncology program at Winship. “This has implications not just for HPV-related squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck, but for the broader field of immuno-oncology.”

The Emory Vaccine Center researchers worked with Saba and Winship surgeon Mihir Patel, MD to obtain samples of head and neck tumors removed from 43 patients.

“This has been a wonderful collaborative effort,” Patel adds. “We’re grateful to the patients whose tumor samples contributed to this study, and I’m looking forward to where this information takes us.”

Within HPV-positive tumors, researchers found an enrichment for B cells specific to HPV proteins, and a subset of these cells were actively secreting HPV-specific antibodies. In the tumors, they could see germinal center-like structures, resembling the regions within lymph nodes where B cells are “trained” during an immune response.

In germinal centers, B cells mutate their antibody genes (somatic hypermutation) and are subsequently selected for increased binding affinity for the antigen. The researchers observed that the antibody genes carried by HPV-specific intratumoral B cells displayed a high number of mutations.

“The high degree of somatic hypermutation is comparable to antibodies observed in chronically infected HIV patients,” Wieland says. “It suggests a prolonged ongoing humoral immune response to these tumor-associated viral antigens.”

In two previous studies of HPV+ head and neck cancer, systemic antibody responses against HPV proteins were associated with improved survival and reduced risk of recurrence. But Wieland says that it’s not clear yet what exact role HPV-specific intratumoral B cells play in the body’s fight against the cancer.

“HPV-specific antibodies may not be having a direct anti-tumor effect,” he says. “HPV proteins remain inside the cell, and thus should be shielded in healthy tumor cells from direct antibody engagement. But the anti-HPV antibodies could be helping the T cell response.”

Wieland says that the role of antibodies against HPV proteins should be further evaluated and that HPV-specific antibodies could potentially be used as therapeutic treatment against HPV+ head and neck cancers, whose incidence has been rising in recent years. They could also be investigated for other HPV-associated tumor types.

“B cells and antibody-secreting cells are present in other cancers,” he says. “The challenge with other types of tumors, especially non-virus-induced tumors, will be the identification of the antigens targeted by the B cells.”


Seasonal flu vaccinations don’t ‘stick’ long-term in bone marrow


More information:
Andreas Wieland et al. Defining HPV-specific B cell responses in patients with head and neck cancer, Nature (2020). DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-2931-3

Provided by
Emory University


Citation:
Another side to cancer immunotherapy? Scientists investigate intratumoral B cells (2020, November 19)
retrieved 19 November 2020
from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2020-11-side-cancer-immunotherapy-scientists-intratumoral.html

This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no
part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.



Postime të ngjashme

Why are so many still dying?


Millions of people are on treatment for HIV: why are so many still dying?
Early diagnosis and treatment are key in the fight against HIV. Credit: Peter Casaer

Twenty years ago, treatment for HIV was a rare luxury in South Africa. Exorbitant costs and President Thabo Mbeki’s government’s fierce opposition to providing antiretroviral treatment (ART) kept it out of the public sector.

They were terrible days. Many lives were lost.

The environment has changed remarkably since then. The turning point came in 2004 when, after four years of struggle, led by the Treatment Action Campaign, the government begrudgingly agreed to start providing ART.

Antiretroviral coverage of people with HIV in South Africa has increased from 0% in 2000 to 71% in 2019. The South African antiretroviral program is now the largest in the world, with more than five million people on treatment, and increasing. HIV-linked deaths decreased from 150,000 in 2000 – peaking at around 300,000 in 2006—to 72,000 in 2019.

But deaths have not decreased as much as was hoped. HIV remains a leading cause of death in South Africa. Many people still present to health facilities with advanced HIV disease. And AIDS remains a major contributor to hospitalisations and deaths in Africa.

Globally, 690,000 people died from HIV in 2019.

Doctors Without Borders (MSF) supports hospitals in South Africa, Guinea, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Malawi and the Central African Republic that continue to treat large numbers of people with AIDS. Because people present with very advanced HIV disease, up to one in three dies during their hospital stay.

One of the main challenges remains that diagnostics and drugs aren’t readily available for people suffering from advanced HIV. This group of people is very vulnerable to deadly opportunistic infections such as tuberculosis (TB), meningitis and severe bacterial infections.

This all goes to show the world is very far from the end of AIDS.

Gaps

In the last ten years the focus has been on diagnosing people with HIV and starting them on treatment. Efforts around the test-and-treat approach have been mobilized around the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets: 90% of people with HIV to know their status; 90% of those whose status is known to be on antiretroviral therapy; and 90% of those on antiretrovirals to have an undetectable viral load.

This is necessary but it is not enough to address HIV-related mortality. Life-long treatment requires life-long support. Some people will interrupt treatment; some will struggle to take their tablets every day, risking developing drug resistance and treatment failure.

Today, most people with advanced HIV either are failing or have interrupted treatment. In two MSF-supported studies in the DRC and Kenya, only 20%-35% of inpatients with advanced HIV were ART-naïve (had never accessed treatment) and over half of those on ART had treatment failure.

The reality of treatment interruption and treatment failure requires a new approach.

This is why MSF piloted Welcome Back Services in Khayelitsha, Cape Town. The services focus on the needs of patients returning to care and those failing treatment. Stigmatization and blaming patients for interrupting or failing treatment is common. This leads to delays in seeking care, and patients presenting as false-naïve—patients retesting for HIV and hiding the fact that they were previously on treatment.

This in turn leads to patients presenting in more advanced stages of the disease or on inadequate treatment.

This is one of the reasons why HIV still claims too many lives. Patients who present very late often have severe immune suppression, multiple concurrent life-threatening illnesses and significant organ damage due to HIV itself. Treatment is complicated by the need for many different medicines, with a higher risk of drug interactions and severe side effects. Even with intensive care, unavailable in most settings, many patients die.

TB is the leading cause of death among people with HIV in resource-limited settings. It is estimated that TB is responsible for around 50% of deaths. Two other leading causes are cryptococcal meningitis, which is responsible for one in five HIV deaths, and severe bacterial infections.

Together, these infectious diseases cause more than two thirds of HIV-related deaths. All three are preventable and treatable—if detected early enough.

No time to lose

There are immediate steps that can be taken.

There are more options than ever to prevent TB disease. New evidence shows that shorter regimens of rifapentine and isoniazid, weekly for three months or daily for one month, are equally effective at treating latent TB and decreasing deaths compared to the older regimen of isoniazid for six to 36 months. And a recent trial demonstrated that a four-month treatment with a new regimen was as efficacious as the current six-month regimen to treat active TB disease.

When left untreated, the odds of surviving cryptococcal meningitis are zero. But cryptococcal meningitis can be prevented and there have been advances in treatment. Daily fluconazole is recommended in some countries for prevention of a first episode, and everywhere as secondary prophylaxis to prevent recurrent disease. Treatment with flucytosine and amphotericin B reduces mortality by 40%. Yet these medicines are still missing in many—if not most—health structures in Africa.

Steps can be taken to prevent death from advanced HIV. These include earlier detection at the primary care level—before patients develop disease so severe that they seek hospital admission. The longer the delay to diagnosis and treatment, the lower the chances of survival.

This is where CD4 tests and rapid tests for TB and cryptococcal meningitis are life-saving.

What is needed urgently to save lives is accelerated access to a package of care for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of advanced HIV at the primary care and hospital level, along with strategies with clear targets to decrease AIDS mortality.


Number of deaths from meningitis due to plummet after new medical advice


Provided by
The Conversation


This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.The Conversation

Citation:
Millions of people are on treatment for HIV: Why are so many still dying? (2020, November 17)
retrieved 17 November 2020
from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2020-11-millions-people-treatment-hiv-dying.html

This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no
part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.



Postime të ngjashme

Vdes personi i parë i shëruar nga HIV-i


Personi i parë i kuruar nga virusi HIV – Timothy Ray Brown – ka humbur jetën nga kanceri.

Brown, i cili është njohur edhe si “pacienti i Berlinit”, është shëruar më shumë se një dekadë më parë, me një transplant të palcës së kockave nga një dhurues që ishte natyrshëm rezistent ndaj HIV-it.

Shoqata Ndërkombëtare e AIDS-it, sëmundjes që e shkakton virusi HIV, tha se Brown i ka dhënë botës shpresë se kura për HIV-in është e mundshme.

Brown, 54 vjeç, i cili ka lindur në SHBA, është diagnostikuar me HIV derisa ka qenë duke jetuar në Berlin, në vitin 1995.

Në vitin 2007, ai është diagnostikuar me një lloj kanceri në gjak, të quajtur leukemi akute mieloide.

Brown është shëruar për disa vite, por kanceri i është rikthyer këtë vit, duke iu përhapur në tru dhe në palcën kurrizore.

”Me trishtim të madh ju njoftoj se Timothy vdiq … i rrethuar nga unë dhe miqtë, pas një beteje pesëmujore me leukeminë”, shkroi partneri i tij, Tim Hoeffgen, në Facebook.

Rreth 37 milionë njerëz në gjithë botën jetojnë aktualisht me HIV.

Sëmundja e AIDS-it ka vrarë rreth 35 milionë njerëz qëkur ka nisur në vitet 1980./REL



Postime të ngjashme

Shkenca nxjerr mësime të reja për COVID-19



Rreth një million njerëz kanë humbur jetën nga COVID-19 në shkallë globale. Kjo humbje tragjike ka krijuar edhe një mundësi të rëndësishme për mjekët e shkencëtarët. Viktimat u ofrojnë mjekëve mundësinë për të kuptuar sëmundjen dhe trajtimet kundër saj, duke krijuar një shans unik në këtë peridhë krize globale:

Shtimi i ritmit të infektimeve në shumë vende të botës, përfshirë Shtetet e Bashkuara dhe Evropën ndërkohë që afron stina e ftohtë në hemisferën e veriut pritet të sjellë edhe shtim të viktimave.

Por, sipas statistikave, ritmet e vdekshmërisë po bien dhe njerëzit që infektohen tani kanë shanse më të mira të mbijetojnë krahasuar me muajt e parë të pandemisë.

Provat klinike kanë treguar se disa ilaçe japin efekt në mjekimin e COVID-19 dhe mjekët po mësojnë përditë e më shumë për praktikat më të mira të kujdesit për të sëmurët.

Për shembull, mjekët e dinë tani se pacientët duhen të qëndronte shrirë barkas për të lehtësuar frymarrjen. Një tjetër ndryshim i madh, që nga fillimi i pandemisë, ka qenë përdorimi i steroideve.

Martin Landray është profesor në Departamentin e Shëndetësisë në Universitetin e Oksforit. Ai thotë se fillimisht specialistët ishin kundër mjekimit me steroide:

“Tani e dimë se tek pacientët në aspiratorë mund të ulet vdekshmëria deri në 33% me një mjekim të thjeshtë, me kosto të ulët. Dimë gjithashtu se ilaçi antiviral remdisivir redukton kohën e qëndrimit në spital, megjithëse ende s’ është vërtetuar Po qe se rrit shanset për të mbijetuar”.

Në Angli studiuesit kanë raportuar rënie të vdekshërisë që nga piku i epidemisë në prill. Një nga arsyet, thonë ata, është ndryshimi i grupit të popullatës që po preket nga sëmundja. Tani numri më i madh i infeksioneve të reja shfaqet në të rinj, të cilët kanë ritme më të ulëta vdekshmërie se pacientët e moshuar.

Mjekët gjatë muajve kanë arritur të bëjnë teste në shkallë të gjerë për të mësuar ndikimin e ilaçeve ekzistuese kundër COVID-it.

“Dimë se hidroksiklorokuina, megjithë bujën e madhe dhe entuziazmin, s’ jep rezultat për përmirësimin e pacientëve në spitale. Dimë që mjekime të tjera si lopinovir që përdoret tek pacientët me HIV, s’ funksionon tek pacientët me COVID,” thotë profesor Landray.

Shkenca ende s’ ka dhënë një përgjigje përfundimtare për plazmën konvaleshente të marrë nga ish-pacientë me COVID, të cilët kanë antitrupa kundër sëmundjes.

“Plazma konvaleshente është përdorur tek më shumë se 100,000 pacientë në SHBA, por jo si pjesë e një studimi të randomizuar, pra rezultati s’ ka si të krahasohet statistikisht. Pra Po qe se pacientët kanë shfaqur përmirësim, është e pamundur të vërtetohet Po qe se kjo u arrit falë plazmës konvaleshente, apo do të kishte ndodhur edhe pa të,” thotë prof. Landray.

Shpresa përfundimtare do të jetë zhvillimi i një vaksine kundër koronavirusit. Por ky është proces i komplikuar dhe kërkon kohë. Deri në atë moment, thotë Dr. Jesse Goodman, profesor në Universitetin Georgetown, çdo gjë e re që shkenca mëson për këtë virus është një fitore e rëndësishme:

“COVID-i do të vazhdojë të jetë sfidë për ne. Pozitivja është se tani kemi identifikuar mënyra për ta zbutur ndikimin. Dimë se maskat ulin rrezikun e infektimit si për personin që vë maskë, ashtu edhe për të tjerët. nevojitet të vazhdojmë të përhapim në mënyrë konsistente mesazhe për shëndetin publik,” thotë Dr. Goodman.

specialistët porosisin se zyrtarët dhe publiku nevojitet të fillojnë ta trajtojnë koronavirusin jo si pandemi, por si një sfidë e pranishme ndaj shëndetit, me të cilën popullata nevojitet të mësojë të përballet në mënyrë të vazhdueshme duke ndjekur praktikat që porosisin mjekët.

Postime të ngjashme

Inflamimi i prostatës – Çfarë e shkakton?

Inflamimi i prostatës – Çfarë e shkakton?


Prostatiti është inflamacion i gjëndrës së prostatës. Mund të jetë shumë e dhimbshme dhe shqetësuese, por është gjendje që në të shumtën e rasteve përmirësohet.

Prostata është pjesë e organeve seksuale mashkullore. Ajo është një gjëndër me madhësinë e arrës dhe rrethon gypin e quajtur uretra, dhe është e vendosur menjëherë nën fshikën e urinës. Ajo prodhon një lëng i cili lirohet së bashku me spermën.

Prostatiti mund të zhvillohet tek burrat e të gjitha moshave, por zakonisht prek burrat e moshës midis 30 dhe 50 vjeç.

Ekzistojnë dy lloje kryesore të prostatitit:
-Prostatiti akut – ku simptomat janë të rënda dhe zhvillohen papritmas; është e rrallë, por mund të jetë serioze dhe kërkon tretman të menjëhershëm, dhe gjithmonë shkaktohet nga një infeksion
Prostatiti kronik – ku simptomat vijnë dhe kalojnë gjatë një periudhe prej disa muajsh; është lloji më i zakonshëm dhe më rrallë i shkaktuar nga një infeksion

Çfarë e shkakton prostatitin?

Prostatiti akut zakonisht shkaktohet kur bakteret në traktin urinar futen në prostatë.
Trakti urinar përfshin fshikëzën, veshkat, tubat që lidhin veshkat në fshikëz (ureterët) dhe uretrën, transmeton netdoktori.
Në prostatitin kronik, zakonisht s’ mund të gjenden shenja të infeksionit në gjëndrën e prostatës. Në këto raste, shkaku i simptomave s’ është i qartë.

Faktorët e rrezikut për prostatitin

Faktorët e rrezikut për prostatit akut përfshijnë:
-Një infeksion të traktit urinar (UTI) në të kaluarën e afërt
-Një kateter urinues, një tub fleksibël që përdoret për të kulluar urinën nga fshikëza
-Një biopsi të prostatës
-Një infeksion seksualisht të transmetueshëm (IST)
-HIV ose SIDA
-Një problem me traktin tuaj urinar
– Dëmtimet apo lëndimet e pelvikut

Faktorët e rrezikut për prostatinë kronike përfshijnë:
-Moshën e mesme (30 deri 50 vjeç)
-Prostatitit në të kaluarën
-Gjendje të tjera të dhimbshme të barkut, siç është sindroma e zorrës së irrituar (IBS)

Simptomat e prostatitit

Prostatiti akut
Simptomat e prostatitit akut përfshijnë:
-dhimbje, e cila mund të jetë e rëndë, në ose rreth penisit tuaj, testikujve, anusit, në pjesën e poshtme të barkut dhe shpinës.
-Çrregullime të urinimit, të tilla si dhembja gjatë urinimit, nevoja pët të urinuar shpesh (veçanërisht gjatë natës), probleme me fillimin e urinimit, një nevojë urgjente për të urinuar dhe, ndonjëherë, gjak në urinë.
-Pamundësi për të urinuar, gjë që çon në grumbullimin e urinës në fshikëz të njohur si mbajtje akute e urinës – kjo ka nevojë për vëmendje urgjente mjekësore.
-Gjendje e përgjithshme jo e mirë, ndonjëhere me temperaturë dhe ethe.
-Një sasi e vogël e lëngut të trashë (shkarkimi) mund të dalë nga uretra, tubi që mbart urinën nga fshikëza

Prostatiti kronik
Ju mund të keni prostatit kronik Vetëm po të keni pasur simptomat e mëposhtme për të paktën 3 muaj:
dhembje në dhe rreth penisit tuaj, testikujve, anusit, pjesës së poshtme të barkut dhe shpinës
dhembje gjatë urinimit, një nevojë e shpeshtë ose urgjente për të urinuar, veçanërisht gjatë natës
Një prostatë e zmadhuar ose e tendosur në ekzaminim të rektumit, megjithëse në disa raste mund të jetë normale
Çrregullime të sferës seksuale, të tilla si mosfunksionim erektil, dhembje gjatë ejakulimit ose dhembje në pelvik pas marrëdhënieve.
Këto simptoma mund të kenë një ndikim të rëndësishëm në cilësinë e jetës tuaj.
Por në shumicën e rasteve, ato gradualisht do të përmirësohen me kalimin e kohës dhe me tretmanin.

trajtimi

Metodat në vijim mund të ndihmojnë në lehtësimin e disa simptomave të prostatitit:
-Bëni një banjë të ngrohtë ose përdorni një jastëk ngrohtë.
-Kufizoni ose shmangni alkoolin, kafeinën dhe ushqimet pikante ose acidike, të cilat mund të irritojnë fshikëzën tuaj.
-Shmangni aktivitetet që mund të irritojnë prostatën tuaj, të tilla si qëndrimi ulur ose vozitja e biçikletës për një kohë të.
-Pini sa më shumë ujë. Kjo do të bëjë që ju të urinoni më shumë dhe të ndihmoni largimin e baktereve nga fshikëza juaj.

trajtimi medikamentoz i protatitit përfshin dhënien e antibiotikëve, alfa-bllokatorëve dhe agjentëve antiinflamatorë.

Postime të ngjashme

Mosquito-borne viruses linked to stroke


chikungunya
Credit: CC0 Public Domain

A deadly combination of two mosquito-borne viruses may be a trigger for stroke, new research published in the The Lancet Neurology has found.

University of Liverpool researchers and Brazilian collaborators have been investigating the link between neurological disease and infection with the viruses Zika and chikungunya. These viruses, which mostly circulate in the tropics, cause large outbreaks of rash and fever in places like Brazil and India. Zika is widely known to cause brain damage in babies following infection in pregnancy, but the new research shows it can also cause nervous system disease in adults.

The study of 201 adults with new onset neurological disease, treated in Brazil during the 2015 Zika and 2016 chikungunya epidemics, is the largest of its kind to describe the neurological features of infection for several arboviruses circulating at the same time.

The new research shows that each virus can cause a range of neurological problems. Zika was especially likely to cause Guillain-Barre syndrome, in which the nerves in the arms and legs are damaged. Chikungunya was more likely to cause inflammation and swelling in the brain (encephalitis) and spinal cord (myelitis). However, stroke, which could be caused by either virus alone, was more likely to occur in patients infected with the two viruses together.

Stroke occurs when one of the arteries supplying blood to the brain becomes blocked. The risk of stroke is known to be increased after some types of viral infection, like varicella zoster virus, which causes chickenpox and shingles, and HIV. Stroke is also being recognized increasingly as a complication of COVID-19. This has important implications for the investigation and management of patients with viral infection, as well as for understanding the mechanisms of disease.

In total 1410 patients were screened and 201 recruited over a two-year period at Hospital da Restauração in Recife, Brazil. Comprehensive PCR and antibody testing for viruses was carried out in Fiocruz laboratories.

Of the 201 patients admitted with suspected neurological disease linked to Zika, chikungunya or both, 148 had confirmation of infection on laboratory testing, around a third of whom had infection with more than one virus.

The median age of patients was 48, and just over half the patients were female. Only around 10% patients had fully recovered at discharge, with many having ongoing issues like weakness, seizures, and problems in brain function.

Of the stroke patients, who were aged 67 on average, around two thirds had infection with more than one virus. Many of the people who had a stroke had other stroke risk factors, such as high blood pressure, indicating that stroke following Zika and chikungunya viral infection may most often be seen in those who are already high risk.

Dr. Maria Lúcia Brito Ferreira, neurologist and head of department at Hospital da Restauração, leading the Brazilian team said: “Zika infection most often causes a syndrome of rash and fever without many long-term consequences, but these neurological complications—although rare—can require intensive care support in hospital, often result in disability, and may cause death.”

Dr. Suzannah Lant, a Clinical Research Fellow at the University of Liverpool, who worked on the study explained: “Our study highlights the potential effects of viral infection on the brain, with complications like stroke. This is relevant to Zika and chikungunya, but also to our understanding of other viruses, such as COVID-19, which is increasingly being linked to neurological complications.”

Senior author Professor Tom Solomon, Director of the National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit in Emerging and Zoonotic Infections at the University of Liverpool said: “Although the world’s attention is currently focused on COVID-19, other viruses that recently emerged, such as Zika and chikungunya, are continuing to circulate and cause problems. We need to understand more about why some viruses trigger stroke, so that we can try and prevent this happening in the future.”


Researchers uncovered the Zika virus mutation responsible for quick spread, birth defects


More information:
Maria Lúcia Brito Ferreira et al, Neurological disease in adults with Zika and chikungunya virus infection in Northeast Brazil: a prospective observational study, The Lancet Neurology (2020). DOI: 10.1016/S1474-4422(20)30232-5

Citation:
Mosquito-borne viruses linked to stroke (2020, September 18)
retrieved 19 September 2020
from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2020-09-mosquito-borne-viruses-linked.html

This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no
part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.



Postime të ngjashme

15 numra që nevojitet të njihni për shëndetin

15 numra që duhet të njihni për shëndetin


BMI

Indeksi i masës trupore përllogaritet nga gjatësia dhe pesha juaj trupore. Por lloji i trupit tuaj, përkatësia etnike, masa muskulore mund të ndryshojë të kuptuarit e kësaj shifre. Psh. Po qe se ushtroheni rregullisht, ju mund të shtoni në peshë për shkak të rritjes së masës muskulore. Ndaj, kur përpiqeni të dobësoheni s’ nevojitet të kujdeseni vetem për vlerën e BMI-së.

Madhësia e barkut

Merrni nje metër dhe matni perimetrin e barkut. Pavarësisht, gjatësisë dhe kosntruktit të trupit, Po qe se perimetri i barkut është më shumë se 94 cm në meshkuj dhe 80 cm në femra (që s’ janë shtatzënë), me shumë mundësi keni më shumë ind dhjamor përreth zemrës, mëlcisë, veshkave dhe organeve të tjera. Përveç se ju nevojitet një numër më i madh pantallonash, ju keni risk të shtuar për sëmundje të zemrës, hipertension, diabet (sëmundja e sheqerit) (sëmundja e sheqerit), apne të gjumit dhe kancer kolorektal.

Tensioni arterial

Tensioni ideal nevojitet te ishte: ai sistolik më i ulët se 120 dhe diastoliku më i ulet se 80. Po qe se këto vlera janë më të larta se 130 dhe 80, ju keni hipertension. Ndoshta s’ keni simptoma por megjithatë, zemra dhe enët e gjakut mund të dëmtohen nga hipertensioni. Me kohën, tensioni i pastabilizuar mund të dëmtojë veshkat, sytë dhe jetën tuaj seksuale.

Glukoza në gjak

Në persona të shëndetshëm vlera e glukozës në gjak nevojitet të jetë nën 100 mg/dL esëll dhe më pak se 140 mg/dl disa orë pas ngrënies (Vetëm po të jeni me diabet (sëmundja e sheqerit) (sëmundja e sheqerit), mjeku juaj mund të përcakotjë vlera të tjera të normës për ju). Niveli i lartë i glukozes në gjak mund të shkaktojë dëmtim të zemrës, enëve të gjakut dhe veshkave. Aktiviteti fizik i përditshëm mund të ndihmojë në stabilizimin e vlerës së glukozës në gjak.

Profili i lipideve

Në këtë test ju mund të matni LDL – kolesteroli “i keq”, HDL – kolesteroli “i mirë” dhe trigliceridet. Sipas një rregulli të përgjithshëm, kolesteroli total nevojitet të jetë më pak se 200 mg/dL. HDL – 60mg/dL ose më shumë dhe trigliceridet më pak se 150 mg/dL. Vlerat jo normale të lipideve mund të shkaktojnë bllokim të arterieve, atak në zemër dhe goditje në tru.

Aktiviteti fizik

nevojitet të kryeni të paktën 30 minuta akivitet fizik në ditë, të paktën 5 herë në javë. Kjo jo vetëm që mund të parandalojë sëmundje të ndryshme kronike por ju mban në formë edhe duke ruajtur peshën optimale trupore.

Qëndrimi ulur

Edhe Po qe se ushtroni të paktën 1 orë në ditë për 7 ditë të javës, s’ e balanconi efektin negativ që ka qëndrimi ulur gjithë ditën. Kur qëndroni ulur, metabolizmi i trupit ngadalësohet dhe ju digjni më pak kalori. Muskujtë dhe artikulacionet tuaja ngurtësohen dhe mund të fillojnë dhimbjet e shpinës.

Po qe se puna juaj kërkon të qëndroni ulur, çohuni çdo 30 minunta dhe bëni zgjatje ose ecje të shkurtra.

Hapat

Pëe të përmirësuar shëndetin dhe humorin tuaj, numrin 10.000 nevojitet ta dëgjoni shpesh. Megjithatë, Vetëm po të bëni nga 4.000 deri në 18.000 hapa është mjaftueshëm. Llojet e hapva që bëni janë të rëndësishme po ashtu. Mbi të gjitha, e rëndësishme është që të plotësoni sasine e aktivitetit fizik të duhur. Mund të përllogarisni hapat tuaja me anë të telefonit tuaj smart, i cili ju ndohmon për të arritur qëllimin tuaj.

Gjumi

Të rriturit kanë nevojë për 7 deri në 9 orë gjumë në ditë. Trupat tanë, e përdorin këtë kohë për të çliruar hormone dhe për të rritur muskujtë. Truri yne e përdor këtë kohë për të përpunuar informacionin dhe për të përkthyer ngjarjet e ditës në kujtime. Gjumi i pamjaftueshëm mund të shkaktojë më shumë uri dhe të rrisë tundimin ndaj ushqimeve të shpejta dhe jo të shëndetshme.

Koha para ekranit

Kufizoni kohën para ekranit (jo të lidhur me punën ose shkollën) deri në 2 orë në ditë. Qëndrimi i gjatë në kompjuter apo në telefon mund të shkaktojë dhembje të qafës, shpinës dhe shpatullave. Përdorimi i telefonit para gjumit mund të shkaktojë çrregullime të gjumit dhe përdorimi i tepëruar gjatë ditës ju bën me pak aktiv dhe të shpërqendruar.

Uji

Sasia optimale e ujit gjatë ditës është një gotë ujë para dhe pas çdo vakti. Mund të keni nevojë për më shumë ujë Po qe se temperaturat janë të nxehta ose Po qe se jeni shtatzënë. konsumoni ujë para aktivitetit fizik dhe çdo 10-20 minuta gjatë aktivitetit fizik. Një gotë ujë në vend të ëmbëlsirave është gjithmonë një zgjedhje e duhur.

Frutat

Sa është sasia optimale e frutave në ditë? 2 tasa me fruta do ishte ideale. Sa janë 2 tasa me fruta? Një mollë, një banana, një dardhë, 8 luleshtrydhe. Po qe se keni më shumë aktivitet gjatë ditës, mund të hani edhe më shumë. Frutat kanë shumë nutrientë të rëndësishëm si vitamina C, kalium, fibra, acid folik etj.

Perimet

nevojitet të hani më shumë perime se fruta. Sekreti është të hani 5 ngjyra të ndryshme në ditë. Mund të jenë të gatuara, te pagatuara, të thata, të ngrira. Mjafton të jenë në dietën tuaj.

Alkooli

Alkooli është i rëndësishëm të jetë në sasi të moderuar. 1 gotë në ditë për femrat dhe 2 gota për meshkujtë. Sasia e tepëruar e alkoolit mund të dëmtojë mëlçinë, veshkat dhe zemrën.

Duhani

Numri i cigareve në ditë nevojitet të jetë plotësisht 0. Duhani shkakton më shumë vdekje se virusi i HIV-it, narkotikët, alkooli, aksidentet me makinë dhe aksidentet nga armët e zjarrit të marra së bashku. Edhe Po qe se pini më pak se 5 cigare në ditë mund të keni risk për sëmundje të zemrës dhe probleme të tjera shëndetësore. Flisni me mjekun tuja për mundësinë e lënies së duhanit. /Familja Jone

Postime të ngjashme