hippocampus
The hippocampus is a region of the brain largely responsible for memory formation. Credit: Salk Institute

What happens in the hippocampus even before people attempt to form memories may impact whether they remember.

A new study analyzed neuronal recordings from the brains of epilepsy patients while they committed a series of words to . When the firing rates of hippocampal neurons were already high before the patients saw a word, they were more successful in encoding that word and remembering it later.

The findings suggest that the hippocampus might have a “ready-to-encode” mode that facilitates remembering. The study, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences with University of California San Diego researcher Zhisen Urgolites as first author, also suggests that when hippocampal neurons are not already spiking very much, novel information is more likely to be poorly encoded and later forgotten.

“A key question going forward is how to put our brains into ‘encoding mode’ when we wish to do so,” said John Wixted, professor of psychology at UC San Diego, and one of the lead authors on the paper.

“‘Encoding mode’,” Wixted said, “is more than simply paying attention to the task at hand. It is paying attention to encoding, which selectively ramps up activity in the part of the that is the most important for making new memories: the hippocampus. Since we know, based on earlier research, that people can actively suppress memory formation, it might be possible for people to get their hippocampus ready to encode as well. But how one might go about doing that, we just don’t know yet.”

Neuronal recordings from the hippocampus, amygdala, anterior cingulate and were collected from 34 epilepsy patients while they underwent clinical monitoring at Barrow Neurological Institute. The experiments were originally performed in Peter Steinmetz’s laboratory between 2007 and 2014 when he was at the institute. The data have since been maintained at the Neurtex Brain Research Institute, where Steinmetz is chief scientific officer, and the present research team is newly analyzing the data.

During the experiments, the patients either saw or listened to a steady stream of words and had to indicate whether each word was novel or a repeat. At first, all the words were novel, but after a while most words repeated.

The researchers calculated the average number of times a neuron fired in response to every word the study participants saw or heard. They also calculated the neuronal firing rates immediately preceding each word. Only the average firing rate in the hippocampus approximately one second before seeing or hearing a word for the first time was important: That neuronal activity predicted whether the participants remembered or forgot the word when it was repeated later on.

“If a person’s were already firing above baseline when they saw or heard a word, their brain was more likely to successfully remember that word later,” said Stephen Goldinger, professor of psychology at Arizona State University.

The neuronal activity measured in the amygdala, anterior cingulate, and prefrontal cortex did not predict task performance.

“We think new memories are created by sparse collections of active neurons, and these neurons get bundled together into a memory. This work suggests that when a lot of are already firing at high levels, the neuronal selection process during memory formation works better,” Goldinger said.


Study suggests our brains use distinct firing patterns to store and replay memories


More information:
Zhisen J. Urgolites el al., “Spiking activity in the human hippocampus prior to encoding predicts subsequent memory,” PNAS (2020). www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.2001338117

Citation:
Your brain needs to be ready to remember? (2020, June 1)
retrieved 1 June 2020
from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2020-06-brain-ready.html

This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no
part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.



(Visited 1 times, 1 visits today)

Related posts:

Hong Kong to shut all schools after virus cases spike
Umfrage: Videosprechstunden bekommen in Corona-Krise Schwung
Lebanon’s neo-liberal wheels sped to a dream future, but the past applies the brakes
China vows to hit US with 'reciprocal measures' after Xinjiang sanctions
Why India cases are rising to multiple peaks
Ein Datenschatz für die Ganganalyse
Researchers identify key role of immune cells in brain development
Merkel press office staffer 'worked for years for Egyptian intelligence'
France investigates report of bodies 'left to rot' at Paris research centre
New study supports remdesivir as COVID-19 treatment
Neues Proteomik-Verfahren: Detaillierter Einblick in die gestresste Zelle
US sees latest record surge in virus cases amid wrangling over lockdown measures
Air Pollution Takes a Global Toll on Heart Health
Indoor airborne spread of coronavirus possible
Australia locks down second city as global cases top 12 million
Serbia drops plans for reimposed lockdown after days of violent protests
WHO launches global pandemic response probe
French César awards announce changes in response to Polanski #MeToo brouhaha
Airborne coronavirus transmission raises new questions and worries
Forecasts predict worse EU recession since WWII
reducing your risk of kidney stones
Scientists discover protective Alzheimer's gene and develop rapid drug-testing platform
UK declines participating in EU Covid-19 vaccine scheme over concerns of delays
Technology Bridges the Gap to Better Sight
CT of COVID-19 versus CT of influenza virus pneumonia
Bolivia's President Anez tests positive for Covid-19
Dogs May Be Good for Children’s Psychological Development
New study outlines best practices for delivering care via telehealth
What’s the Best Exercise for You? Twins Can Provide an Answer
A memory game could help us understand brain injury
Übernahme von Rhön-Klinikum AG durch Asklepios abgeschlossen
Corsicans harness the #IWas movement to challenge a culture of silence
Drug Giants Create Fund to Bolster Struggling Antibiotic Start-Ups
Coronavirus fears kept many essential workers at home in April, study finds
Stationär behandelte Bronchiolitis: Feste Nachsorgetermine möglicherweise gar nicht notwendig
Facing ridicule, France changes title for its ‘minister for attractiveness’
The Coronavirus Can Float in Indoor Air, W.H.O. Concedes
Covid-19 drug buyout: US's EU representative denies 'America First' policy on Remdesivir
Virtuelle Hämatologie/Onkologie-Jahrestagung: „Mehr Wissenschaft – mehr Hoffnung“
Streamlining acute malnutrition treatment brings same recovery in children at lower cost
A Missed Warning About Silent Coronavirus Infections
COVID-19-Studie: Studie errechnet doppelten Nutzen bei überlasteten Intensivstationen
Body of Seoul’s mayor found after massive search
Living close to green space benefits gut bacteria of urban, formula-fed infants
Regeneron Scientists Raced To Find Antibodies To Fight Covid-19. Then The Coronavirus Found Them.
DKG: Finanzierung der ambulanten Krebsberatung weiterhin nicht gesichert
Study sheds light on how cancer spreads in blood
Volunteer carpenters aim to settle reconstruction debate
At Least 5 States Set Single-Day Coronavirus Case Records
IQWiG empfiehlt kein Screening auf Hodenkrebs
Libya: Countries who supported Haftar 'bet on the losing horse', adviser to GNA says
one in six British people would refuse a vaccine – here's how to change their minds
Who Gets a Vaccine First? U.S. Considers Race in Coronavirus Plans
Supreme Court rules NY prosecutors can obtain Trump tax returns
Aktuelle ASCO-Studien zeigen hohen Stellenwert der Radioonkologie bei Kopf-Hals-Tumoren
Ten tips for looking after your back while you're sitting down
Live Coronavirus Updates: U.S. Daily Cases Surpass 59,000
Asthma und Allergien: Zusammenhang mit Schlafgewohnheiten von Jugendlichen
China's new strategy to tame second-wave virus outbreaks
Biogen engagiert sich in Deutschland im weltweiten Kampf gegen COVID-19
Schools or bars? Opening classrooms may mean hard choices
Künstliche Intelligenz im Kampf gegen das Coronavirus
A wave of independence sweeps across Africa
Virus cases jump in worst-hit trio of US, Brazil and India
MEG Teltow übernimmt urologische Praxis in Finsterwalde
Four-time Tour winner Chris Froome to leave Team INEOS at end of season
Scientists identify key factor regulating abnormal heart growth
PREDICT-Card: Wirksam gegen Bauchspeicheldrüsenkrebs - Biermann Medizin
Is it safe to visit the dentist during the pandemic?
'Consensus' that Notre-Dame spire should be rebuilt in original form
Benigner paroxysmaler Lagerungsschwindel – Letzte Therapieoption
Ultra-fine X-rays target brain cancer cells with precision
Wirkstoffe aus Kieler Meeresalgen als Mittel gegen Infektionen und Hautkrebs entdeckt
Almost 30 women accuse Paris street artist of rape, sexual assault
'Anti-vaxxers' gain traction against HPV vaccine on Facebook, study shows
Gentherapie bei Netzhautdegeneration: Was ist heute möglich? Wie geht es weiter?
George Floyd told officers 'I can't breathe' more than 20 times, transcript shows
Immediate outreach increases children's likelihood of completing PTSD screens, says researcher
Warning of possible virus resurgence, France rules out another 'total lockdown'
Implantate: Wie lassen sich Komplikationen nach der OP verringern?
Researchers uncover a critical early step of the visual process
Trump insists on re-opening schools as US Covid-19 death toll tops 3 million
Mexican president lauds Trump despite past threats, insults against Mexicans
5G networks have few health impacts, study finds
Grave Shortages of P.P.E. Gear Flare Again as Covid Cases Surge
Melbourne starts six-week lockdown on fears of second Covid-19 wave
Donald Trump 'narcissist', 'never been loved', writes niece in tell-all book
Spatial mapping method pinpoints potential new therapeutic targets in lupus
Study of 17 Million Identifies Crucial Risk Factors for Coronavirus Deaths
Nurses and midwives take the lead in providing HIV services in Eastern and Southern Africa
Brazil's President Bolsonaro taking - and pushing
Drug treatment could improve effectiveness of immunotherapy for cancer patients
Menthol cigarette ban in the US may lower number of smokers
Higher fruit, vegetable and whole grain intake linked to lower risk of diabetes
Experimental drug shows early promise against inherited form of ALS, trial indicates
Harvard, MIT sue Trump administration over revoking foreign student visas
Large-scale fall prevention study finds smaller than expected benefit
NfL outperforms other blood tests to predict and diagnose traumatic brain injury
Ivorian Prime Minister Amadou Gon Coulibaly dies at 61
Angeborene Herzfehler: Veränderungen der Hirnstruktur mit MRT schon im Mutterleib erkennen

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *